January 17, 2019


Today I was given an opportunity to lead by my team members in an exercise known as Black Swann. I was not too willing to lead because I was not mentally prepared, but couldn't refuse to the task. The challenge was again reading and giving the right instructions and delivering the right message to the group. All this week I was thinking about motivation and getting the people on board. I started the exercise on the same thought. I tried to align my team members to the vision by a energetic smile. The power to create the right environment lies in my hand. So I tried. This was a learning I had from yesterday. Yes the first box tick. I learnt and applied. As per feedback I received, that energetic briefing helped the team to align with the vision. When there is one goal going on in the team, the work of leader becomes easy. All the time this week I was thinking about aligning people and motivating them. After yesterday I thought I have learnt a fair bit. But guess what , a great learning was waiting for me today. Today I was able to reflect on the operational aspect of my leadership. As always there will be some positives and some which are not. I ll talk about the areas of improvement. Yesterday I made a conclusion about reflecting your actions as a leader. Today I applied it but not to the full extent. There was a time when I went into brain fade mode and didn't think about the things going on. Rather I should have reflected on the strategy and suggested the team to develop a new action plan. We did the reflection bit in the first couple of hours but weren't able to do it at the end. My responsibility was to lift up the team spirit. You can never get complacent. It's always about following the PDSA cycle. Resilience is a very important quality to have. Such small instances of energy can have major impact on the outcome.

Another thing is the ability to work under pressure. I know that I can perform under pressure. But it is necessary to think crystal clear under pressure. I was not able to fully achieve it. A calm mind can lead to better decision making. This is something to pick up from the great leaders. They are one step ahead of the game. They have the larger picture in mind when people are involved into tasks. If I could improve it even more further, that calmness can be infectious for the benefit of the whole team. Today's learnings for me were really from an operational point of view. One thing that I am sure about right now is that leadership is about learning daily. More I reflect the more I learn.

It is interesting how the learning points that I concluded yesterday took a practical form for mr today. I have already discussed about the reflection and creating an environment bit. Further, I talked about skill development centres yesterday. I could relate it with the concept of value-based CSR from today's session. I also believe in the social responsibility. I was moved by what Ratan Tata said about CSR, that material benefit is of no good unless it is contributing toward's development of the country.These skill centres can also serve as being responsible towards the society. There has been a lot to take from this module already and still there is one day left. Applying all my learnings today gave me greater satisfaction. To end, I would say that values have become an importnt part of discussion everyday. Somehow or the other I end up thinking about them, be it decision making or CSR. Exploring them further.

January 16, 2019

Never Judge Employee's Performance

It is interesting to observe that I am doing a leadership module and I am blogging about various aspects such as strategy and employee motivation. This is exactly what leadership is. It is everywhere. It is essential for wide range of activities within business and everyday life. I will be building upon the yesterday's thought about setting people's expectations. To bring all the people together it is necessary to bring a shared goal and shared vision on the table. It is important to note that all the menmers of the team need to buy-in on the vision and the goal . It has to come from within. A leader has to be aware enough to give their team a sense of purpose. This is where revolutionary leadership comes into picture. showing the people a graeter vision and having them establish a shared goal. I can feel passion bubbling out from the word revolutionary. A leader should never expect the same amount from passion from the other members. Just accept and take whatever they have to offer on a daily basis. Respect what they want to do. Maybe that is how they can work the best. The true sense of leadership will be realized when a leader creates an environment which instills high amount of motivation within the team. Also, if the situation gets critical and leader realizes that the team needs to put in more effort , that calls for action from the leader. Ask for help from group members. According to experience of my classmates, leader is always given help if they ask for it. Overall, Reflect and Take Action ; and create right learning environment.

Having talked about expectations, how do we measure the performance of the employees. How to give them promotions? Judging the performance of the employees is a bad way to motivate them. It includes, giving ranks, declaring the best and the worst employees and firing on the basis of that. Never link performance with pay. The employees will never feel motivated if someone is getting a higher pay sitting on the same table. So how to proceed forward. The concept of developmental performance appraisal was somehow catchy for me. We don't rank and employee and give them marks. Here our vision is to push them to keep on improving. There can be feedbacks on the same level creating a learning environment for the employee. But now let me consider the exploited workforce. How to help them improve continuously? Maybe creating skiil development centres for them within the organisation can help in their career development. Why to provide skills to just my employees? It can also be available for all the unskilled labour in the region. This learning and development on the mass scale will increase the employibility of the workforce. This sets the basis for the revolution. This is something what revolutionary leaders could do. It takes some difficult decisions to start a revolution. If this thing is done by a particular organisation, won't all the people would be willing to work there? giving them skills means empowering them. Such a decision has the potential to set the revolutionary vision for the industry. It just has to start with one organisation, and I believe it will spread like fire.

Important thing is to convert this vision into action. The organisational vision can be implemented through HOSHIN KANRI, which I wish to explore further. But, there are certain things that are possible if the leader is ready to amke tough decisions. How can these tough decisions be implemented/taken? A leader's values will guide these tough decisions , because something that is tough for the ordinary, is a necessary thing to do for a leader. The values will guide you home. These values will motivate the revolutionary leader to take the right decisions and define the right things. Look at history, most of the revolutions happen when strong values are applied into action by leaders. Hoping for happiness of each living being!


Everyday forces you to learn something new. There were a couple of learning points at the end of the day. But how do I know the actions that are required to build on the learnings? It comes from reflection. Taking the feedback from your group members is really important in order to know how to adjust the leadership style. In a multi-cultural group, there might be different expectations from different people. As a leader, expect all to have different in opinions. All the members might not have a same style of working or might not be on the same page as you. It is very necessary to then reflect on your actions and try to improve them. This is not the first time in my life that I have received a very conflicting view on the way I should lead a team. My way is to expect the same amount of seriousness and commitment from the team members. But sometimes due to different personalities and cultures my team expects different things from me. Maybe they want their own space or they do not want to be convinced on what are my opinions. So what do I do as a leader? The first step I have established right now is to reflect. Reflect on your actions. Reflect on the impact that your actions are having on the group. Reflect on what are the necessary things to be done in order to achieve the goal. There might be instances where certain actions are necessary, and application of those actions might not make you a likeable personality. But the questions that a leader really needs to ask themselves while reflecting are that, Do I really want to be liked? Or do I really want to be respected? How do I manage the expectations of my group?

The point to consider here is that, when you as a leader have different expectations from what your group thinks, you as a leader have a different definition of "Right thing to do" in your dictionary. It might not be something very right in someone else's dictionary. Reflection will help to identify the necessary actions to be taken. If a leader can take feedback from the team, then they will be able to act better and develop the correct definition of "Doing the right thing".

To summarize, here is something that I have learned which can be applied differently in my leadership experiences -" The feedback mechanism is necessary to see your direction as a leader. The reflection will help you to keep on updating and improving your actions which will lead to a better end result." I am looking forward to explore more on managing people expectations and defining the right thing while leading, because I recognize that I cannot expect the same level of motivation from everyone because it is something that lies under individual's jurisdiction.

January 14, 2019

Can leaders motivate?

Today we were running a very interesting simulation exercise in class which was about the styles of leadership. My tean leader was given a role of transformational leader. A transformational leader influences the people with vision. What I found out during the exercise was that it is difficult to motivate people. If a person do not want to do their work it is a bit chaotic for organisation. But Paul said that we cannot motivate people. It is their wish. I can conclude such a statement only when I try to apply it. As leaders we need to make some tough decisions . The best a leader can do is to create the right kind of learning environment. Again it boils down to the right processes. It is the right kind of learning environment that will give the right results. The questions that I need to ask myself is that ,"What do the people of my organisation really need?" If I am able to fulfill their needs , I can motivate them or atleast I can give them an opportunity to get motivated. Again it comes down to maslow's lower three needs , fulfilling them.

In the second exercise for the day, I came across a very common fact, that leaders have to take very risky decisions. Decisions can have various sort of effects. So being the leader, how do I ensure that I take the right decisions? When you want to transform the thinking, you need to be right in your actions. The answer is something that I am coming across too often now-a-days. It is the value system of the person. Your values will guide you towards the right path. Same applies for the organisations as well. The values of my organisation will guide the kind of decisions it will make, the people it will recruit, the kind of environment it will present. Having such guidelines help make the right decisions such as hiring and firing. Need to develop a value system!

January 13, 2019


Leadership is all about people, so are businesses. Hence, leadership becomes so important in a business context. The next week is going to be really interesting. There are a lot of things that can be learnt about leadership. The main challenge that I see for myself is to apply leadership effectly in the business. Although I have been at various leadership positions earlier but there is always something that you can learn about. The current theme I have in my mind is to learn to apply leadership in various forms. The question is ," How leadership can be applied to fill the gap between doing the right thing and fulfilling people's expectations?" Sometimes you might a face a situation where people prefer to be in their comfort zone and don't realize the importance of doing things differently. The role of leader is to influence them. But it is easier said than done. Leadership when applied in the right way can put in a stepping stone for various organisation implementations. It plays a role in creating a continuous improvement culture, implementation of six sigma programmes and deployment of human resource strategies. It plays a role in every sphere. I hope to answer the question in the coming days of the leadership module. It is going to be exciting. The important thing is reflecting back everyday, that's how you learn. Hoping to write a blog by the end of the module and atleast developing a process by which I will find an answer to my question. That's something I have learnt, isn't it? The process is always important. Not to worry about the results.

The last week was pretty interesting, there were certain things discussed in the class that triggered a lot of thoughts. Always the concern for me is to drive a revolution in the industry where people have low levels of awareness. It can be tough to introduce changes without people understanding them and getting them on-board. Interesting point is about the intrinsic motivation. How to get people motivated to do the job without any monetary factors. One way is to take the money off the table. That is a point to consider. But it is something that I need to do regularly to keep up with the cyclical inflation changes. Should not be a major problem.

The term that I like particularly , I read about it a few days ago, it is "Revolutionary Leadership". What does it mean? I cannot answer it on a general basis but I can think of how it can be applied in my scenario. We were having a discussion in the class about the Maslow's Hierarchy. The bottom three parts of the hierarchy are Psychological, Safety and Belonging needs. Paul asked me this question, "Do you think that the workers in your organisation have these three needs fulfilled?" My answer was straight no. This is what revolutionary leadership can do for me. Satisfy all these three needs of people part of my organisation. Fulfill their esteem needs. Make them feel they are respected. Then I can bring intrinsic motivation into picture. That will be a start of a journey to make a contionuously improving organisation. Again the stimulator is leadership.

There was one another learning in this study week module for me. I have always observed researches backing up their arguments with facts and research. it gives credibility to your views. Particular experience was when I was trying to make a point and it was backed up by a research outcome by Paul. I couldn't convince everyone just on the basis of my view. After the fact the argument seemed to be more strong. This is something that I have learnt as a WMG Research student. Waiting for an exciting week ahead . Hoping to reflect and learn.

December 10, 2018


I have been thinking a lot about the growth of the Indian Unorganised Manufacturing Sector (IUMS), specefically the unorganised industries that I am concerned with. Every module helps me to restructure my approach and add something new to the strategic growth story of the IUMS.This is a point that I came across earlier as well, India has limited International brands. This is a point of concern. It might be possible that the local industries just focus on fulfilling the needs of the existing local market and have not really thought about going global. It might be possible that the quality requirements of the international market are quiet high and it becomes difficult to for the local firms to maintain such quality. But on the other hand , India does manufacture for the international brands which means that we surely have the capability and the competitive advantage to do so.

Last week I attended the personal Branding Masterclass session. Although, it was from the point of view of one single person but it made a lot of sense from the organisational point of view. Organisations need to develop their own brands in order to recruit the right people and also to differentiate from the rest. It can be a combination of product brands (Adidas) and organisational brands (Alibaba). The organisational values lie at the very vore of developing a brand. Hence, it is the first thing that needs to be done by the IUMS. When an organisation develops its values, then it has a specefied path that it needs to follow. All the future decisions can be based on this specefied template. Such a strategy is important for the IUMS to grow and develop further. These brands are intangible but there are various tools and techniques which can be applied to develop a tangible proposition. Branding Canvas is a very relevant tool that can be used by the organisations.

 Branding Canvas

I used this tool to try and develop my organisational's values which will further help me to create a brand positioning. Other methods and techniques such as organisational behaviour and communication can be used to define the brand image.

After looking at the issue of branding , further I realized that that my organisation is not taking the steps to recruit the right talent. The organisation needs to understand its mission and vision in order to get the right people. The organisation needs to develop a culture at the very start so that it can be carried forward. Google has a culture to recruit innovative and diverse people as it aligns with their organisational purpose. Here are a few challenges that can be faced by the IUMS, such as , motivating individuals ; coping up with change ; creating a sense of purpose with increased diversity. These are the areas that should be considered to foster growth for the organisations and industry as a whole. While studying OPP, a lot of questions came in my mind regarding the extrinsic motivation. There were fishes given in the class to motivate the class to perform better. Actually this system demotivated me. The thought of being marked on every action restricted the creative ability. But this is my opinion. Some people do feel motivated by such rewards. While running an organisation it becomes necessary to balance both the things. Yes we talk about intrinsic motivation in MBE, but people need money, that is the fact at the end of the day. I feel it is necessary to have a good combination of both the rewards. Pay the employees an amount which drives money out of the table. The reward and recognition system should never create a negative environment within the organisation. The workforce environment in my industry is not great. We have illiterate workforce where not such focus is paid on the intellectual resource of the employees. In such a scenario it becomes necessary to design the right human resource strategy. All other strategies can never be useful if the employees are not aligned with the organisational goals, which is the current scenario.

November 27, 2018


I have picked up this title from a book. It has it's own relevance. This story will be from my perspective, hence it is referred to as ,"A Story". I will not dive deep into the history but try to put down important facts from my own perspective. India had a very rich resource base and produced products for the global market. The manufacturing sector was booming and in the 16th Century india had a 30% share in the global output while britain had 2% share. The reason was the competitive advantage that india posessed in terms of skill and resources. This is known as the traditional flexible manufacturing phase.

The major changes that occured in the indian manufacturing environment were mostly due to state and government control. There are a couple of facts to back up my claim, when mughals arrived to india they treated india as their place of administration. They started to include territories inside the mughal empire and that helped in free trade. Now , due to the huge size of the empire there were less barriers and more trade opportunities. Hence, state played an important role in the structuring and booming of the manufacturing sector. Next the East India Company came in there was a period of British Raj. They provided instability to the indian economy and that is where our economy started to decline. When the whole world was facing the modern manufacturing shift, India was not able to innovate and grow because the country had no government existence. The britishers imposed policies which discriminated against the indian manufacturing sector. During 1850s, India lost it's comparitive advantage.

The dualistic nature still exists in the indian economy. It was a special feature of all the economies of the world. They had both small and large firms to start off with, but slowly and gradually they all converted into modern manufacturing units. We can talk about JCB which was a family business and which transformed into a modern manufacturing unit. But somehow, India has missed that transformation. Presently, there are still certain firms which are unorganised and come under the category of small businesses, on the other hand there are businesses which are a part of the modern industry. The industrial revolution that took place across the globe was due to the techonological methods and introduction of new techniques. There were different organisational structures that were introduced. All these things helped in the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century.

All the major economies of the world have gone through the industrial revolution but India has somehow missed this phase. India has grown straight into a service giant without utilizing the potential of it's manufacturing sector. There were a lot of opportunities when india could have prospered it's manufacturing. During the end of mughal era, India was one of the top exporting nations across the globe. It was in the traditional flexible manufacturing phase then. As the other economies in the world, it was a time for india to make use of it's comparitive advantage and enter into a modern manufacturing using the machines to produce goods and better technology. Also, the new industry needed protection from the outside market to help in growth of the local industry. Both of this did't take place. There was no stable state control in india to facilitate the introduction of new methods, no policies. And also the indian manufacturing sector was discriminated against and it lost it's comparitive advantage.

The second possible opportunity could have been after the independence. But somehow we were not able to make use of it as well. The policies by the nehru government helped the industries a lot on the supply-side and the state owned industries started to become stagnant because of the subsidies from the government. There was a lack of innovation. The government further didn't provide the freedom to the private enterprises and that restricted it's growth. Even the reforms of 1991 did nothing to transform the labour market. The indian economy still holds a lot of characteristics of the traditional system. Still there is a lot of dependence on traders to sell goods and give consumer feedback. Cluster industries are still prevalent. There exists a dualistic economy and it has not transformed even after centuries. There are a lot of segments in the economy due to which people stick to making low cost and poor quality products because of higher number of middle and lower income group people. Approximately 80% of the organisations are in the unorganised sector. It becomes difficult for the government as well to design policies in such an environment.

This background knowledge raises a lot of questions. It is important to learn from the past mistakes and try to build on them. Probably we are again at a stage where we as a nation can make or break the manufacturing sector. Again, the world is looking towards india as a great potential market as it happened in the 16th century. This time there would be no colonization or EIC. There might be other factors that can hamper our growth loop. A lot of merchants in India who started accumulating wealth in the 1990s are looking further to convert their circulating capital into the fixed capital. It is exactly what happened in the 17th century. At that time we didn't have the right structural stability to drive the nation forward, but the same mistake should not be repeated. It is upto the people to elect a stable government.

Another important aspect that can be looked at is the creation of knowledge sharing and innovative environment. The concept of cluster innovation can be used to drive growth.There are a lot of things to consider. It is important again to understand the root causes and make a startegy to tackle them. We cannot be depended just on the government to make a change. As individauls we need to think how to contribute to the growth environment. Yes one person can make a change given that you identify the right problem to hit upon. It is a way of thinking that matters.

There are a lot of questions that need to be addressed again. To make an excellent organisation, it becomes necessary to set the core values , then define the vision and purpose. I feel there are a lack of indian organisations which can compete in the global environment. There is a new LONG WAVE that is taking place in the nation in order bring a transformational change. It will not be easy to revive the third pillar(manufacturing) of the economy. It is not easy but it has been done by other countries in the world. The post world war Japan has displayed amazing grit and determination. We can learn the good things and take it ahead from there.

This was a overview of the macro level picture. As a manager it becomes necessary to look at the micro level and think about the practical steps that might be taken and the anticipated results.

November 25, 2018


The week was a brilliant one. There were a lot of simulations that helped us learn a lot. There was something important to take away from each day. If I need to implement these principles in my organisation, I need to understand them to the core. Talking about lean six sigma, I need to start thinking on lean principles in order to impleemnt them. For example, James Horton (from bombardier) told that he went into starbucks and observed that it is so annoying to wait in the queue for your turn to get coffee. That is a non-value added waste in the process. As a manager I need to think on these lines in order to implement the approach successfully.

One of the major learnings was to not make assumptions about the process and try to understand it first. It aligns with the principle of knowledge put forward bt Deming. After understanding the root causes it becomes necessary to treat one problem at a time. If we try to implement solutions for multiple problems we cannot know exactly which solution is effective and which is not. To have a complete know how of the process take it step by step.

Also, it might be possible that individual departments and processes may work well individually, but it doesn't mean they will work together as a system. It aligns with the appreciation of a system. During making a plane, we tried to time the individual processes but at the end the whole system of assembly line was not able to come together. It is important to develop a systems thinking. Think of organisation as a whole and start thinking. The biggest obstacle that one can face as a manager is the resistance to change. That is one thing that I need to learn to tackle. One way is to involve the employees in the evolution of the idea. But, given the organisation environment that I have seen back home, it is not that easy to do. I need to reflect back every day and try to find the right solutions for these obstacles.

I have always been taught to listen to the customer. It is the most important aspect of the business. But now I know a few scientific ways to implement it. Process improvement is always about the listening to the voice of the customer and listening to the voice of the process. According to the Takt time we can then figure out in what time I need to make one product in order to fulfill the demand. JCB factory had a lot of visual signals. These can also be an important point to consider while running an organisation.

Lean is about improving the speed of the process and six sigma is about making the best quality on point. Considering a basketball game, reducing the time taken for a ball to be transferred from one corner to other comes under the lean thinking and hitting the ball on point/target with minimum variation is the six sigma ideology. They can be used together well. Reducing the waiting time in a queue in coffee shop is a non-value added waste which can be removed by introducing the online order and payment system before entering the cafe. It reduces the waiting time and increases value added time. This comes under the lean thinking(reducing cycle time).

In my organisation most of the products are made in batches. Once a batch of sole is applied on the shoe, then the whole batch goes under the next step. This method keeps the customer waiting. The customer waits for the whole batch receives a large quantity at once. A better solution can be single piece production(assembly line). It can help to introduce concepts of Just-in-time and help to reduce costs. This is an approach that I need to consider. It can save a lot of time and money. It can help to address the issue of batch defect and a single defected product can be treated in the assembly line without affecting the other products. Initially, I would like to start off with the pull system. It helps overcome the problem of overproduction. We will be making the products on the demand of the customers. TAKT time can help further to design the process.

Lean requires a learning organisation in action, which requires a culture of continuous improvement, which further requires to identify the problems in implementing the continuous improvement culture. This is the methodology of identifying the root cause. I need to figure out from where I need to start off. There has to be a starting point.This is the beauty of self-reflection, it helps you to understand where you are and what needs to be done right to achieve a particular result. There are a lot of things to consider.

November 21, 2018


Today was the third day of the PIUSS module. We were introduced to Taguchi loss function and experimentation. It was the time to revisit an already known fact. It is important to get the design of the process and product right because design itself can save a lot of cost and improve quality. It is something we learnt in the plane making simulation. During making the plane, we all made a major mistake and focussed on improving himan training, but the actual focus should have been the process improvement. Today was the time to make helicopters fly in the air for as long as possible. We need to make sure that we do as few tests as possible in order to save experimentation costs. We used orthogonal arrays to identify the major control factors that will keep helicopter in the air for longer. This time my focus was on improving the design of the helicopter. We started off with considering some important factors. While designing the helicopter, I thought that the idea of making a streamlined tail is going to be a major factor and it will help the helicopter to stay in the air (I was again making an assumption, how can you conclude something without having data and analyzing the process? My bad). We listed 7 factors and calculated the Signal noise ratio for eight different prototypes. We got good results. But now arises the major question. We know that we have a good model. But did we really know why that particular model was a good model? It is a very important question to answer. Because there are a lot of factors that play a role in defining the design. The same thing I ahve experienced in the industry as well. Sometimes people end up making good products, but they don't know why it was good. Everything cannot be relied on hit and trial. So using the L8 array we found out the major and most significant factors.

I was surprised seeing the results. We had the best Signal-Noise ratio. But did we really know why it was so? Before the start of the process I assumed that streamlined tail design is going to be the difference. But data showed a whole different story. It was the use of transparent tapes that was a significant factor in increasing the air time. Tail design made a difference but not much. till is the power of scientific process and data interpretation. Now I imagine how do manufacturing companies back in my city operate. i am sure they don't collect data. I am sure that they somehow know why they achieved a particular result. After today's experience I can just think of how many wrong assumptions they might be making. It is important to follow the DMAIC process. The implementation will be interesting. Looking forward to it.

November 19, 2018


I am into the module week for six sigma. Today we tried to improve a process using the six sigma. At the start of the day, I learnt a very important fact that 95% of the six sigma project fail to get implemented due to the socio-economic reasons. Hence, once again people become the foundation for everything. It is important to manage change. It is always necessary for the organisation to tell people , why are you making such changes. It helps people to understand better and creates a sharing environment. Resistance towards change is normal, good managers listen to employees with empathy and guide them from resistance towards change till the achievement of results. Hence, change management becomes a critical success factor in the implementation of six sigma apart from the various tools and techniques.

We did a simulation for trying to improve the process capability and control. The whole DMAIC cycle plays a major role in guiding through the right steps. We found out that are process was not giving the best results. Hence, we started to analyze the process. Here comes a very important learning, always verify the root causes and try to develop the possible solutions. The major reasons for wastage were identified. At the end of the we as a team were trying to find the solutions of improving the process. Initially we were trying to figure out too many things at once and not looking at the root causes. Our focus was more on the special causes and we started training the operators. If we keep on doing the same process, it is difficult to get a different result. It sounds so simple, yet the managers tend to forget the basic things. The supply issues were one of the root causes in the process, so we need to find a solution to get the right materials without wasting much of the time. Also, the process has to be consistent. Working with the team today, I gained a practical experience about change management. It requires a lot of involvement from people. Once everyone is sharing the common vision the process can be changed and better results can be achieved. Looking forward to implementing changes in the process tomorrow.

January 2019

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  • Good post Saurabh. I agree that sustainable success in any field cannot be achieved through a quick … by Paul Roberts on this entry
  • Thank you for your thoughts Paul. Critically analysing the point, most of the business have short te… by Saurabh Kukreja on this entry
  • Lots of thoughts here Saurabh. Picking up on your last point, perhaps the starting point is to consi… by Paul Roberts on this entry

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