All entries for Tuesday 24 December 2019
December 24, 2019
Analyse: Break an issue down into its component parts, discuss them and show relationships between the component parts and how they are related and why they are important. 剖析各部分的关联与影响
Identify: Point out the key features or ideas of something that are related to your research.
Define: Explain the precise meaning of a concept, giving sufficient details as to allow it to be distinguished from similar things. If the definition is a contested one then make sure to mention this. How do other scholars define the subject? Why is its meaning contested and why to use one meaning instead of the other if this is the case? 具体化某物使之突显强调
Discuss: Essentially this is a written debate where you are using your skill at reasoning, backed up by carefully selected evidence to make a case for and against an argument, or point out the advantages and disadvantages of a given context. Remember to arrive at a brief conclusion.就像一场辩论赛
Review：Look thoroughly into a topic, with the emphasis on critical assessment rather than descriptive. Provide a well reasoned account describing the whole situation and
looking critically at the important points. 从多角度，多行业去看待一个问题
Critical: It often used in conjunction with other directive words, such as critically evaluate, or critically analyse. It is not equal to criticise. It is supposed to give a balanced answer that indicate limitations or weaknesses and any favourable aspects of the subject. Of course, any argument must be strongly supported with evidence from reliable sources.
Interpret: Demonstrate one's understanding of an issue or topic. This can be the use of particular terminology by an author, or what the findings from a piece of research suggest to readers. In the latter instance, comment on any significant patterns and causal relationships.
Justify: Providing evidence to support one's ideas and points of view. In order to present a balanced argument, consider opinions which may run contrary to your own before stating your conclusion. 增加counter-arguments 会让自己更具说服力
Examine: To investigate a topic thoroughly and closely. Look in close detail and establish the key facts and important issues surrounding a topic. This should be a critical evaluation and should try and offer reasons as to why the facts and issues have been identified are the most important, as well as explain the different ways they could be construed.
Explore: Adopt a questioning approach and consider a variety of different viewpoints. Where possible reconcile opposing views by presenting a final line of argument.
Provide a brief statement covering the most important points without any details and more importantly in your own words. Outline 也是总结概括关键点，但不一定要paraphrase； paraphrase也是用自己的话，但可能不止是关键点，还有details.
Assumption：Something which is accepted as being true for the purpose of an argument.
Hypothesis: Suggest the reasons for some phenomenon or situation and the processes by which it occurred. A hypothesis is a theory regarding particular occurrences. You confirm hypotheses through testing. So the hypothesis you come up with has to be
Objectives：Things one need to do and achieve in order to answer the assignment.
Issue：An important topic for discussion; something worth thinking and raising questions about.
Methodology：A system of methods and principles for doing something. Often used to explain methods for carrying out research.
Assess & Evaluate
Although some literature and dictionaries shows that Evaluate and Assess have almost the same meaning, there is slight difference can be found in the nouns.
When it comes to education, Assessment is defined as a process of appraising something or someone, namely the act of gauging the quality, value or importance, which pays attention to learning and teaching process. As against, evaluation focuses on making a judgment about values, numbers or performance of someone or something, such as the given grades showed on papers.
In a word, assess is preferable to measure a process or the level of performance whereas evaluate is performed to determine the degree to which goals are attained that is more suitable to measure a specific outcome or product.