All entries for Thursday 13 May 2021
May 13, 2021
Session 3 – Mobile Lives and Distant Homes
Our first papers of the afternoon developed many of themes explored in the previous panel, pushing further our thinking and discussions about practices of home-making and belonging. We designed this panel to centre around mobility and distance, asking how home could be at once imagined and material, a complex composite of different experiences, emotions, and negotiations.
Kate Donnington’s fascinating work on the Hibbert family moved us across the Atlantic and back to examine the complexity of family life between Jamaica and Britain in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. Her paper was carefully attuned to the power dynamics of the masculine space of the early Hibbert world in Kingston, reflecting on the sexual “transgressions” with unnamed women whose lives and experiences remain tantalisingly just out of reach in the archive. Marriage, however, marked a clear change for Robert Hibbert, and Donnington powerfully evoked the tensions which arose between Hibbert’s white creole wife and his mother on the couple’s return to Cheshire.
Alex Lindgren-Gibson then followed with her study of Mermanjan, a young woman from Afghanistan who eloped with a colonel in the British army during the nineteenth century. While the story of the so-called “Afghan princess” has been written about and embellished several times, Lindgren-Gibson’s rich analysis of Mermanjan’s scrapbooks asked new questions about how she experienced her mobility across colonial spaces and how she felt about her relationships. From her romantic first marriage, her more painful second marriage, to the bonds of female friendship, Lindgren-Gibson explored Mermanjan’s authorship over her own story through her sketches.
Above: Photograph of Mermanjan in the early days of her marriage - India Office Private Papers Mss Eur E304/, British Library.
Finally, Mikko Toivanen turned to the childhood experiences of mobility and home through the diaries of Corry and Hugh Loudon who travelled to the Dutch East Indies during the 1870s. For these children, their experiences of mobility were disorientating as they compared the new spaces they encountered with the familiarity of home in the Netherlands. Their writing often expressed difficulty at reading gender roles, as well as feelings of discomfort as they came face to face with their own whiteness in the colonial setting.
Together these papers emphasised the intimate bonds and expressions that undercut the mobile lives of their historical subjects. Their focus on personal and private sources, such as diaries, letters, and scrapbooks, suggest the ongoing navigation of identity and belonging that underpinned the colonial experience.
Session 4 – Spaces of Encounter
Our final panel delved further into this theme of intimacy, centring the home as a space of encounter. As later questions rightly framed, often the emphasis on home during the conference looked to the homes of those in power. While this panel largely maintained this emphasis, the papers also offered space for new stories and perspectives to come to the forefront.
For example, Marie Grace Brown’s discussion of male Sudanese servants working for British colonial officers during the 1930s powerfully evoked the contradictions and multifaceted relationships that could characterise the employer-employee dynamic. As men employed to perform so-called “women’s work”, these servants effectively ‘ran the bachelor’, holding domain over the kitchen in ways that could both expose and collapse distance. Food, again, played an important role in building eaffective relationships, going beyond sustenance to promote familiarity and sentimentality.
As Brown left us eating ice-cream on the veranda, Rosie Dias followed with a fantastic analysis of the veranda or terrace as a hybrid space where the colonial house did not – or could not – escape its colonial setting. Looking across a range of visual representations in colonial India, Dias explored the gender, racial, and cultural negotiations on display in this blurring space. While Johan Zoffany’s portrait of the Impey family exposes both self-fashioning and anxiety, the works of Julia Margaret Cameron and Marianne North speak to the female inhabitation of the oriental gaze as they photographed and painted pedlars from their veranda.
Dias’s emphasis on visual representations was continued by Ellen Smith who combined photographs and postcards with her wider study of letter-writing. Rounding off this panel, Smith complicated typical post-1857 narratives of colonial India by emphasising the constant lived interaction and bodily contact between coloniser and colonised. She suggested there at times existed an uneasy state of sociability, exposing the moments of tension and misunderstandings on the part of missionaries who might misread important class and familial dynamics.
Above: Group Portrait of Sir Elijah and Lady Impey, ca. 1783 – 1784. Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm, Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.
Finally, we were delighted to welcome Kate Smith as our keynote speaker. Provoked by the Ranajit Guha article from which the conference took its inspiration, Smith interrogated the interlaced relationship between anxiety and home in the experiences of Sarah Elizabeth Amherst as she lived in India with her parents during the nineteenth century. Through her journals, Smith identified how Amherst continued to feel a sense of unhomeliness while travelling across the subcontinent, experiencing India as a space unknown and unknowable, while highly conscious of herself as someone subject to the gaze of those she encountered. The journals themselves were written with others in mind, namely her brother who remained in England, allowing her to maintain a sense of belonging and connection to “home” in Britain. This forging of intimate connections while navigating distance also took material forms as the arrival and expectation of correspondence via the packet service was accompanied by long periods of waiting and fears of disruption.
Above: Lady Sarah Elizabeth Amherst's sketch of the East wing of Government House, Calcutta (1824).
Smith’s keynote beautifully tied together the conference, evoking the key themes of materiality, representations, intimacy, mobility, and anxiety that cut across the earlier panels. In our next and final blog post, we will reflect further on these themes and the next avenues for our thinking and the conference. Until then, we wish to express again our thanks to all speakers, chairs, and participants for making the conference such a rich and thought-provoking event.
The At Home in Empire: Colonial Experiences of Intimacy and Mobility Conference 2021 has now taken place, and having had several weeks to digest and reflect upon the fantastic papers given by our speakers, we thought this blog would be a good place to share some of the exciting research and thought-provoking ideas that were highlighted during the conference.
To begin the first panel of the day, ‘Curating and Collecting: Domesticity on Display’, Charlotte Johnson introduced us to her research on the collections of Lord Curzon, former Viceroy of India in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Curzon amassed an extensive collection of Asian and imperial objects during his time in India, which he sent to be displayed at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. Later, they were used in the creation of an ‘Eastern Museum’ at Kedleston Hall, Curzon’s ancestral home. Using examples of various objects and records from both the V&A and Kedleston Hall, Charlotte demonstrated how the collecting and curating of these objects embodied imperial mobilities, with the histories of the objects often constructed so as to centre the narrative of Lord Curzon. In doing so, they created silences of empire, obscuring source communities and colonial practices.
Above: some of the objects from Lord Curzon’s collection of Asian and imperial objects discussed by Charlotte Johnson.
Continuing the theme of the individual colonial figure as a collector and curator, Carl Deußen’s paper explored non-European artefacts in imperial German homes through the the example of Wilhem Joest, an ethnographer in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Photographs of Joest’s flat reveal it was extensively decorated with artefacts, curios and souvenirs from his travels, as well as diaries, letters and publications. Deußen suggested that Joest’s collecting and the display of objects throughout his home was a form of constructed empire: his selection of artefacts aimed to present an image of a strong and static empire, which disguised the true nature of a fragile relationship between colony and metropole. Simultaneously, the size and composition of Joest’s collection worked to legitimise his status within the field of anthropology.
The final paper of the panel shifted our attention to present-day interpretations and displays of domestic settings of West Africa and Caribbean plantations within British museums. Matthew Jones used examples of displays in several museums to demonstrate how resistance to enslavement is often portrayed through a lens of masculine military conflict. In doing so, Matthew argued that the absence of domestic spaces neglects their role as settings from which everyday resistances to slavery were enacted and the legacy of the Middle Passage was lived out. In doing so, the interconnectedness of homemaking and resistance is lost, and the narrative of the slave trade and resistance becomes a gendered history in which the roles of free and enslaved African women are often erased.
Overall, the panel highlighted the role of the coloniser as central in the construction of representations of imperial domesticity. In doing so, the papers reveal how the roles of indigenous and enslaved peoples in the creation and history of objects, as well their lived experiences in domestic spaces, are often marginalised or absent through the practice of collecting and displaying empire.
The second panel of the morning explored questions around the making and remaking of home in colonial contexts. Dr Claudia Soares began by interrogating the experiences of poor children sent to Canada as a result of the policies of major British charities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Foregrounding the voices of these children, Claudia used publications and newsletters from the institutions to demonstrate the changing and complex meanings children associated with their new environments. These meanings were dependent on the children’s ages, memories and experiences of the Old Country and of Canada. Case studies of children revealed common themes of homesickness, the difficulties of maintaining family ties over time and space, and the highly mobile nature of many migrant children as they sought to establish a place they could call ‘home’.
Above: British immigrant children from Dr Barnardo’s Homes at landing stage, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Source: Isaac Erb. Library and Archives Canada, PA-041785
Following on from this discussion, Dr Dayana Ariffin turned our focus to the colonial construction of family in British Malaya. Through the study of her grandfather, Noor Mahmud Hashim, Dayana examined the complexities of navigating identity and home against a backdrop of colonialism and increasing nationalism. Born to a Scottish mother and Indian father, Noor lived in Singapore, India, and Malaya, eventually making Kuala Lumpur his home. This personal story challenges the dominant narrative in Malaysian history of the binary of resistance or collaboration with colonial powers, highlighting the mobilised identities of Noor as he occupied space between indigenous and colonial identity, which were further complicated by his role as a colonial civil servant and the intricacies of social class.
In her fascinating paper, Yasmin Shamma engaged with Palestinian cookbooks, poems and the testimonies of refugees to examine ideas of cooking, waiting and making-home when away from home. She took us on a journey through refugee camps, arguing that cooking traditional recipes in these environments allows refugees to continue cultural practices. By preserving the ingredients to cook these dishes, refugees are preserving their agriculture and connection to ‘home’, whilst engaging in a form of everyday resistance to their dislocation.
Kate McGregor’s paper continued with examining ideas of dislocation and preserving a sense of ‘home’, through the lens of imperial Germany. Using case studies of two German women living in the African Colonies at the turn of the twentieth century, Kate explored their roles in recreating a German Christmas for their families. This demonstrated the women’s use of specific traditions, Christmas decorations, songs and food to capture a sense of weihnactsstimmung, the Christmas mood. In enacting a German Christmas, Kate argued these women played a significant part in ensuring the cultural heritage of their families, as well as helping to solidify white German identities in colonial settings and therefore protecting their racial integrity.
Above: Kate McGregor discussed the lives of Helene von Falkenhausen and Magdelene von Prince; two German women who strove to create the experience of a traditional German Christmas for their families, whilst living in colonial Africa.
These papers each demonstrated the complexities of identity and home when coupled with colonial mobility or displacement, highlighting a fundamental human need to hold onto or recreate a sense of home, irrespective of age, gender, time or place. The rich cross-section of papers left us with much to think about as we took a break for lunch, and the scope of stimulating topics continued in the afternoon session, and will be discussed in the next blog post.