March 06, 2008


Supply chain management (SCM) is the term used to describe the management of materials and information component producers to final assemblers to distribution fact, it often incluedes after-sales sevice and returns or recycles.


A Typology of Location Condition (Table)


Location condition Tangible Features Non-Tangible Features
1 Transportation facilities Freight rates Reliability, frequency damage, avilability
2 Materials Production cost Security, quality
(Transportation cost)
3 Markets Transportation costs Personal contact, tastes, rivals
(Servicing costs)
4 Labour Wages, non- wage benefits
Hiring costs
5 external economies Externalities (Positive and negative)
(a) Urbanization labour skill, information
(b) Localization sharing, common services,reputation
6 Energy Costs Reliability, diversity
7 Community infrastructure
(a) SOC Capital cost, taxes Quality diversity
(b) EOC Capital cost, taxes Quality diversity
8 Capital
(a) Fixed Constrction cost, rent Availability, lay-out
(b) Financial Cost of borowing Availability
9 Land/buildings Costs Size, Shape, access, services, lay-out
10 Environment
(a) Amenity
(b) Policy Costs, taxes Local attitudes
11 Government policy Incentives, penalties,taxes Attitude, stability business climate

March 05, 2008

Explicit Knowledge & Tacit Knowledge

Knowledge can take many forms. In general, it can be either explicit or tacit.

Explicit knowledge is knowledge that either is written down in a knowledge base or captured in a formal document-for example, a patent. These embodiments of knowledge are proven and quantifiable assets employed to generate the revenue recorded explicitly at the bottom line.

Tacit knowledge-the knowledge that is in people's brains-is the greatest knowledge base in any company, and it is continually changing and evolving. When users share tacit knowledge, they are actually updating the company's explicit knowledge. In other words, the accumulation of the technical questions and their answers generate our explicit knowledge bases for the future.

March 04, 2008

Knowledge Management

Knowledge is one sure source of lasting competitive advantage in an economy where the only certainty is uncertainty. The Japanese organizational theorist Ikujiro Nonaka said one of problem in the most western manager hold a too-narrow view of what knowledge is and what companies must do to exploit it. They believe that the only useful knowledge is "hard" (read: quantifiable) data. And they see the company as a kind of machine for "information processing." But there is another way to think about knowledge and its role in business organizations. It is found most commonly at highly successful Japanese companies such as Honda, Canon, Matsushita, and Sharp.

So we can see Knowledge management is very important in the company. Create a knowledge management is necessarily for a continuous and lasting developing of the company. But before this module I did not hear or know about the knowledge management.

The Spiral of Knowledge

New knowledge always begins with the individual. A brilliant researcher has an insight that leads to a new patent.

Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is highly personal.

Explicit Knowledge

The relationship between the Tacit Knowledge and Explicit Knowledge

1. From Tacit to Tacit. Sometimes, one individual shares tacit knowledge directly with another.

2. From Explicit to Explicit. An individual can also combine discrete pieces of explicit knowledge into a new whole.

3. From Tacit to Explicit. When Ikuko Tanaka is able to articulate the foundations of her tacit knowledge of bread making, she converts it into explicit knowledge, thus allowing it to be shared with her project-development team.

4. From Explicit to Tacit. What's more, as new explicit knowledge is shared throughout an organization, other employees begin to internalize it -- that is, they use it to broaden, extend, and reframe their own tacit knowledge.

In the knowledge-creating company, all four of these patterns exist in dynamic interaction, a kind of spiral of knowledge. Think back to Matsushita's Ikuko Tanaka:

  1. First, she learns the tacit secrets of the Osaka International Hotel baker (socialization).
  2. Next, she translates these secrets into explicit knowledge' that she can communicate to her team members and others at Matsushita (articulation).
  3. The team then standardizes this knowledge, putting it together into a manual or workbook and embodying it in a product (combination).
  4. Finally, through the experience of creating a new product, Tanaka and her team members enrich their own tacit knowledge base (internalization). In particular, they come to understand in an extremely intuitive way that products like the home breadmaking machine can provide genuine quality. That is, the machine must make bread that is as good as that of a professional baker

February 18, 2008

Six Sigma—training, people

Training is a important factor in the successful implementation of six sigma projects.The belt system must be applied throughout the company starting with top management and should be cascaded down through the organizational hierarchy. The curriculum in the belt system varies from organization to organization and from consultant to consultant.

Although these people are the ones who receive a proper training, this does not mean that they are the only individuals within the organization in charge of six sigma. They are agents of change who should spread the six sigma philosophy throughout the company. Operators who know their process better than anybody should also be familiarised with it since they are the main contributors of the quality in products and services.

The belt system offers a wide knowledge in six sigma initiative, it would not reinforce all the new knowledge and skills needed to sustain six sigma. They will:

Linking six sigma to customers

Linking six sigma to human resources

Linking six sigma to suppliers

Understanding tools and techniques within six sigma

February 12, 2008

Six Sigma

Look at the jounral I summarize that there are four aspects of the six sigma strategy that are not accentuated in other quality management and improvement methodologies of the past.

Firstly, six sigma places a clear focus on achieving bottom-line results in monetary terms. No six sigma project is approved unless the project’s returnon- investment is clearly identified and understood by the team. The bottom-line impact of a project depends heavily on the type of project (Black Belt, Green Belt or White Belt).

Secondly, six sigma has been very successful in integrating the human (teamwork, culture change, motivation, customer focus, etc.) and process (process control, process monitoring, process analysis, process improvement, etc.) aspects of improvement.

The third key characteristic of six sigma is that it integrates both statistical and non-statistical tools of quality improvement in a sequential manner within a powerful

problem-solving framework (Define-Measure-Analyse- Improve-Control).

The fourth characteristic of six sigma is that it creates a powerful team infrastructure (Project champions, Master Black Belts, Black Belts, Green Belts and Yellow Belts) for implementation of projects.

February 09, 2008

Six Sigma—Improve design cycle

Improved design cycle


This figure shows the basic improved design cycle that provides the necessary rigour for DFSS. To deal with the failures in use of both product and service it is important to learn from the past and to learn from experience in use through testing. To deal with the failures of inappropriate strategy, lack of favour and poor performance, it is important to learn through exposing the design to business and customer requirement early on in the cycle. By shifting the starting point to first learning by example, then testing a concept against business and customer needs, evaluating the design against quality metrics, and then piloting prototypes, by the time the design is launched commercially it will be guaranteed a greater degree of success. Success in design comes from a rigorous approach, a customer focus, and in ensuring that hindsight becomes foresight:

·      Learn by example from both the present and the past

·      Learn by exposure to business scrutiny

·      Learn by examination against customer requirements;

·      Learn by experience in test and prototype

February 08, 2008

Six Sigma framework

The practice of six sigma takes the form of projects conducted in phases generally referred to recognized as define- measure - analyze- improve- control (DMAIC0. Afrer the define phase of a project, key process characteristics are identifiedm studied and benchmarked in the measure and analyze phases. Then in the improve phase a process in changed to gie a better or optimized performance. Finally, the control phase then ensures that the rresulting gains are sustained eond the competion of the project.

The use of statistical thinking is a common thread through these phases, with measured data prociding an indispensable proxy for realities and facts. Thus, Harry and Schroeder presented Six Sigma as a disciplined method of using extremely rigorous data gathering and statistical analysis to pinpoint sources of erroes and ways of eliminating them. The levels of competence of personnel executing the projects ar eclassified orr laeld as Master Black belts, Black Belts, Green Belts and so on

February 07, 2008

Reliability and Six Sigma

Development of any product in volves designing processes that can result in the desired product. Successful development of  a product depends on the effectiveness of the inderlying processes. Naturally, process variability is a concern for any product development team, since it affects the reliability and quality of the product. To manage the processes, we have to measure it, especially the variations and the incertainties associated with them. It have close relationship between the reliaility and six sigma.

we can use proabilistic models to analysis such as probability distribution, sigma quality level, failure function and so on.

February 01, 2008

Last lecture day of Six Sigma

Today is the last lecture of six- sigma. Time always go quickly. This two lecture is Roger Williams took, he talked about the Taguchi Experiment and methods, but I think most of those knowledge was talked by Graeme in the before four days, so it is not acctually very fresh content, but it is a good way to sum up the content of last four days. I recalled the process of that two experiments and how to use the methods to solve the problem. Very nice.

Actually I really like the lecture of this week, it is funny and interesting. From the two experiment, I know how to use the methods to improve the quality in practise. It is more useful than read in the book but not do anything.

I really need pack up the knowledge of this two week and think over it. Hope I can using in my project or the future work.

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