With the growing importance of adequate security measures for well-fare of the mankind, the necessity of human identification has increased dramatically. In response to this necessity, “biometrics” has emerged as a reliable means of identifying a human subject.
The word “biometrics” is derived from two Greek roots: (a) ‘Bios’ meaning life; and (b) ‘Metric’ meaning measurement. Hence “biometrics” involves the study of approaches and algorithms for uniquely identifying humans based on their distinctive biological features.
A biometrics should satisfy the following properties: (a) universality, i.e., the feature should be possessed by every human subject; (b) uniqueness, i.e., the feature of a subject must be sufficiently distinguishable from every other subject; (c) permanency, i.e., the feature must remain unaffected with ageing; (d) measurability, i.e., the feature must be quantitatively measurable with ease; (e) circumvention, i.e., the feature must be nonimitable to restrict imposter accessibility; and (f) acceptability, i.e., The process of acquiring features must be acceptable by the humans.
It can be divided into two types:
1. Physiological biometrics which uses physical attributes of the humans for identification, e.g., face, iris pattern, earlobe geometry, fingerprint.
2. Behavioural biometrics which analyses human behaviour over a stipulated time interval for identification, e.g., voice, gait.
Now dear friends, it is very obvious that both types of biometrics has its own advantages and disadvantages. Physiological biometrics are comparatively easy to capture and analyse, but requires cooperation of the humans for procurement. Whereas, the beauty of behavioural biometrics is that it can be obtained unobtrusively at a distance without interfering with the person’s activity.
In the light of the above discussion, would you like to explore the practical applications of these two types of biometrics? Some recent issues regarding visual surveillance, law enforcement, convictions to criminal cases.......and more!