November 24, 2004

Kanye West/Talib Kweli Concert

the mighty radio warwick music department gave my co host and i two awesome (and might i add, FREE) tickets to the kanye west concert in birmingham yesterday. it was a pretty good show, needless to say kanye's got talent to spare but the crowd was a bit sketchy…his opening act however (Talib Kweli) was absolutly brilliant. hes done some really really good stuff with Mary j Blige(I Tried) Mos Def(twice in a lifetime), RES, Busta Rhymes and Jay Z(Get By), as well as stuff with Common and Kanye. If you're into hip hop at all youll know that most of that is quality stuff as opposed to all the other crap out there right now – or, i think so anyway.
all in all i think i enjoyed the opening act more than the headliner

did anyone else go to the show? what'd you think?


Anyone been listening to RaW?(Radio Warwick)

Writing about web page http://www.radio.warwick.ac.uk

Im wondering how many people on campus actually listen to RaW…its meant to be quite good actually – well i enjoy doing my show so its good for me anyway – but you should check it out. its 1251AM, and on monday evening at six.
let us know what you think!

November 13, 2004

AIDS & HIV Questions and Answers

Writing about web page http://www.plannedparenthood.org/sti/aidsquestions.html

came across this in my quest for interesting info onAIDS and HIV.its simple and to the point, have a look.

What is AIDS?

AIDS is short for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV disease. HIV disease is caused by HIV — the human immunodeficiency virus.

How many people have AIDS?

In the U.S., more than 885,000 cases of AIDS have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)(CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Dec.1999). More than 40,000 women and men get HIV each year in the U.S.

How could I get HIV?

HIV is transmitted in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. HIV is commonly spread by

having unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who has the virus
sharing needles or syringes with someone who has the virus
being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with the virus
getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores
HIV can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during pregnancy or birth.
HIV is not transmitted by simple casual contact such as kissing, sharing water glasses, or hugging.

Can I get HIV from a blood transfusion?

The risk of transmitting HIV by a screened blood transfusion in the U.S. is practically nonexistent.

Can I get HIV by donating blood?

No. Needles and syringes for collecting blood are only used once.

How does HIV work?

HIV breaks down the immune system — our body's shield against disease. HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn’t affect them.

How can I tell if someone has HIV?

You can't. The CDC estimates that as many as one in three people with HIV don't know they are infected. Testing is the only way to tell.

What are there symptoms?

Some people develop symptoms shortly after being infected. On average, it takes more than 10 years.

There are several stages of HIV disease. The first symptom of HIV disease is often swollen lymph glands in the throat, armpit, or groin. Other early symptoms include slight fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, and swollen glands. They may only last for a few weeks. Then there are usually no symptoms for many years.

What are the later symptoms of HIV disease?

a thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth (thrush) that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat
severe or recurring vaginal yeast infections
chronic pelvic inflammatory disease or severe and frequent infections like herpes zoster
periods of extreme and unexplained fatigue that may be combined with headaches, lightheadedness, and/or dizziness
rapid loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting
bruising more easily than normal
long-lasting bouts of diarrhea
recurring fevers and/or night sweats
swelling or hardening of glands located in the throat, armpit, or groin
periods of continued, deep, dry coughing
increasing shortness of breath
the appearance of discolored or purplish growths on the skin or inside the mouth
unexplained bleeding from growths on the skin, from mucous membranes, or from any opening in the body
recurring or unusual skin rashes
severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex, paralysis, or loss of muscular strength
an altered state of consciousness, personality change, or mental deterioration
How can I avoid getting HIV?

The surest way is to abstain from sexual intercourse and from sharing needles and "works" if you use steroids, hormones, and other drugs.

If you choose to have sexual intercourse

Consider your partner's HIV status. Does your partner have other sex partners? Does your partner share needles?
Have safer sex to reduce the risk of exchanging blood, semen, or vaginal fluids with your sex partner(s).
What is “safer sex”?

“Safer-sex” activities lower our risk of exchanging blood, semen, or vaginal fluids — the body fluids most likely to spread HIV. Each of us must decide what risks we will take for sexual pleasure.

If you are using needles for steriods, hormones, or other drugs

Do not share needles.
Get into a needle-exchange program.
Be sure to disinfect the needles you use.
Don't share personal items that may be soiled with blood. This includes toothbrushes, razors, needles for piercing or tattooing, and blades for cutting or scarring.

Be tested and treated for sexually transmitted infections every year. Women and men with open sores from herpes and other infections get HIV more easily than other people.

Stay in charge. Good judgment and self-control are the basis of safer, healthier sex. Alcohol and drugs weaken both. Don't risk your good judgment and self-control with alcohol or other drugs.

HIV RISK COMPARISONS

Here are some common sex behaviors grouped according to relative risk

VERY LOW RISK — No reported cases due to these behaviors:

fantasy — cyber — or phone-sex
using clean sex toys
masturbation — mutual masturbation
touching — massage
erotic massage — body rubbing
kissing
oral sex on a man with a condom
oral sex on a woman with a Glyde® dam or plastic wrap
LOW RISK — Rare reported cases due to these behaviors

deep kissing (with blood letting)
vaginal intercourse with a condom or female condom
anal intercourse with a condom or female condom
oral sex
(Try not to get semen, vaginal fluids, or blood into the mouth or on broken skin.)
HIGH RISK — Millions of reported cases due to these behaviors

vaginal intercourse without a condom
anal intercourse without a condom
What can a pregnant woman do if she thinks she's been exposed to HIV?

She should consult a health care provider who knows about HIV disease. Without treatment, about 25 percent of babies born to women with HIV are also infected. However, the use of anti-viral drugs, cesarean delivery, and refraining from breast feeding can reduce the risk of transmission to less than two percent.

Nevertheless, children born with HIV often develop AIDS. A pregnant woman with HIV may want to consider whether or not to continue her pregnancy.

Are there medical treatments for people with HIV disease?

A variety of treatments — combinations of medicines called “cocktails” — offer hope. They are often very expensive and are not available to everyone. They only work for some people and may only work for limited periods of time. While there is increasing hope for people with HIV, there is still no cure.

Is AIDS fatal for everyone who has it?

Some people have lived with AIDS for many years. New treatments and increased knowledge may help many more people live with AIDS even longer.

Where can I get tested for HIV?

Tests are available from Planned Parenthood health centers and most physicians, hospitals, and health clinics. Local, state, and federal health departments offer free testing. Some have anonymous HIV counseling and testing sites. You can also buy an anonymous HIV home test kit in a drugstore or at www.homeaccess.com. Tests are done with samples of blood, urine, or saliva. Some testing sites now offer rapid testing that can provide results in less than an hour.

Privacy and Testing

You can be tested "confidentially" or "anonymously." "Confidential testing” means your result will be put in a permanent medical record under your name. "Anonymous testing” means your name is not used. Some states require clinicians to report the names of those with HIV or AIDS to health officials. You may want counseling before and after testing. If your clinician doesn't offer it, contact one of the resources at the end of this pamphlet.

Should I be tested?

Testing may be especially right for you if you think that you or your sex partner(s) may be infected and

You want to slow the progress of the infection by receiving medical treatment.
You want to become a parent.
You and your partner know you will have no other partners for a number of years and you want to stop practicing safer sex.
You want to apply for health insurance, the armed forces, or a government agency that requires testing, and you want to know your status before applying.
What if I have HIV?

Consult a clinician experienced in treating HIV/AIDS.
Protect your sex partner(s) from HIV by following safer-sex guidelines.
Inform sex partner(s) who may also be infected.
Do not share needles or works.
Get psychological support with a therapist and/or join a support group for people with HIV.
Get information and social and legal support from an AIDS service organization.
Don't share your HIV status with people who do not need to know. Only tell people you can count on for support.
Maintain a strong immune system with regular medical checkups and a healthy lifestyle:
Eat well.
Get enough rest and exercise.
Avoid illegal and recreational drugs, including alcohol and tobacco.
Learn how to manage stress effectively.
Consider using anti-viral therapies that may slow the progress of the infection.
For additional information about AIDS and HIV

Call the toll-free CDC National AIDS Hotline: 1–800-342-AIDS (2437)
Spanish: 1–800-344–7432
TTY: 1–800-243–7889


November 04, 2004

election results

so i came home to north carolina – all pumped up about the elections and looking forward to a new president – one that i would be less ashamed of – but guess what…president bush got re-elected. think i sound bitter? well, i AM!
really, its depressing knowing that so many americans actually agree with his policies and support him enough to re-elect him into office. not to say john kerry's platform or campaign were impressive or anything…but george bush? again? come on guys….

October 26, 2004

a short definition of HIV/AIDS

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. HIV-2, seen more often in western Africa, has a slower course than HIV-1. There are many strains of both types and the virus mutates rapidly, a trait that has made it especially difficult for researchers to find an effective treatment or vaccine. In many cases, a person's immune system will fight off the invasion of HIV for many years, producing billions of CD4 cells daily, always trying to keep up with the HIV's mutations, before it succumbs and permits the well-known signs of AIDS to develop.
HIV is especially lethal because it attacks the very immune system cells (variously called T4, CD4, or T-helper lymphocytes) that would ordinarily fight off such a viral infection. Receptors on these cells appear to enable the viral RNA to enter the cell. As with all retroviruses, once the RNA is inside the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows it to act as the template for its own RNA to DNA transcription. The resultant viral DNA inserts itself into a cell's DNA and is reproduced along with the cell and its daughters.

The exact origin of the virus in humans is unclear. Scientists surmise that it jumped from an animal population, probably African monkeys or chimpanzees, to humans via a bite or meat. The first case documented in humans dates from 1959. The virus was isolated by Luc Montagnier of France's Pasteur Institute in 1983. It went through several name changes before the official name, human immunodeficiency virus, was agreed upon.

i got this from the history channel website in case anyone is interested in getting some more detail


Link to history of aids up until 1986

Writing about web page http://www.avert.org/his81_86.htm

link

this links to a website with the history of aids divided by yearly sub headings. its quite comrehensive so im not pasting the whole text, but do click on the link and have a look!


History of HIV/AIDS – Timeline

Writing about web page http://filebox.vt.edu/users/lkling/Timeline.htm

In 1980 the first cases of HIV were being discovered in California. However, at the time the mysterious disease was not known as HIV but was considered Kaposi's Sarcoma, an extremely rare form of cancer in the United States though it was common in some parts of Africa.
The man had purplish-blue splotches on his body called endotheliomas. Doctors in California started to make the connection that their patients with this disease were all young, gay men. From here they realized they were dealing with something totally new.

1981

On July 5, 1981, the "New York Times" publishes its first article on AIDS, entitled, "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals."

1984

In 1984 a disease that African people have called "slim" because of the wasting away of the body that it causes is revealed to be a heterosexual epidemic of AIDS. Also, the death of Gaetan Dugas, the man who was called "patient zero" and the man who was rumored to have brought AIDS to North America died. In other news, the US Health and Human services secretary at this time, Margaret Heckler, said that she believed AIDS would only be a "brief epidemic" and there would be a vaccine in just a few years and a cure by 1990.

1987

In 1987, 3 years later, a community based-response group to AIDS is formed in Uganda and this sets the pace for the establishment of other organizations just like it around the globe. Also in America during this year, AZT is approved as the first antiretroviral drug to be used as a treatment for AIDS.

1988

On December 1st, 1988 the first world AIDS day is held.

link

1990

In 1990, 40 people take part in a conference entitled, "AIDS and the role of the church" in Kinshasa, Zaire. It is also announced that Africa has the most AIDS patients in the world with 5,500,000. North American only had 1,000,000 comparatively.

1991

As of 1991, HIV in young pregnant women was decreasing in Uganda. This was the first significant downturn of AIDS in any developing country. The success was attributed to the countrywide fight against AIDS.

1993

In 1993, representatives from West Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe arrived in Harare, Zimbabwe for an AIDS consultation.

1995

In 1995, in another part of the world, Eastern Europe, an HIV outbreak is discovered in injecting drug users.

1998

In 1998, as the threat of AIDS in Africa grows the United Methodist Church in Zimbabwe continues to respond to the threat of AIDS.

1999

In 1999 AIDS leaves a half million children orphans in Zambia. The Clinton administration after a visit to Africa recommends a 100 million dollar federal budget increase to fight AIDS throughout the world.

2000

In 2000, the AIDS crisis in Africa continued to grow. An 11 year old boy living with AIDS in South Africa spoke live on television to the 13th international AIDS conference in Durban.

2001

2001 marked the 20th anniversary of the center for disease control's report about clinical evidence of what was then a new disease, AIDS.

2002

And as of 2002, more than a million Africans are newly infected with HIV. It is said that President Thabo Mbeki doubts the conventional view that HIV causes AIDS. It is also said that he is suspicious of the high prices of anti-AIDS drugs and also the safety as well as the usefulness of them. He did not go so far as to ban them but discourages South African doctors from using them. As a result of this, doctors and nurses are forced to smuggle AIDS drugs such as nevirapine into hospitals. It is suggested that the government start treating babies and rape victims first. Presently, Africa has 70% of adults and 80% of the children living with HIV in the world. 16 countries of the Sahara have more than 1/10 of the adult population aged 15–49 infected with HIV. South Africa has the largest number of people in the world with HIV/AIDS with 4.2 million.

October 20, 2004

Aids spreads in ecuador

Writing about web page http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ap/20041019/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/ecuador_aids_1

QUITO, Ecuador – The spread of AIDS (news – web sites) in Ecuador's most populated province is reaching levels comparable to Africa and the Caribbean a decade ago and could mushroom into a national epidemic if left unchecked, United Nations (news – web sites) officials warned Tuesday.

"In 10 or 15 years, if there isn't important prevention work, we are going to have a frightening epidemic, starting on the coast and spreading to the entire country," Paul Martin, a U.N. Children's Fund representative, told reporters.

"In certain zones on the coast in Guayas the levels of AIDS infections are approaching levels reached 10 years ago by Africa and the Caribbean," he said during a press conference called by the U.N. to draw attention to the problem.

He said the United Nations Program on HIV (news – web sites)/AIDS has budgeted $14 million for Ecuador, but that there is no expenditure to cover "the slowness on the Ecuadorean side to define the role of programs to fight this epidemic."

According to Ecuador's Health Ministry, there are between 4,800 and 5,000 reported AIDS cases in a country of 12 million people, but that the number of unreported cases could be as high as 50,000.

Mauricio Valdez, the U.N.'s coordinator in Ecuador, said "80 percent of the cases are on the coast in Guayas," which has as its capital Guayaquil, Ecuador's largest city with 3.3 million people.

"In the last few years, there has been a 'feminization' of the problem, as opposed to other countries where it is predominantly" centered on the male population, said Miguel Machuca, a representative of the Pan American Health Organization.

"In Ecuador's case, the situation is becoming more alarming because of the predominance of infections in women and children," Machuca said. "This means the epidemic is advancing out of control."


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