All 7 entries tagged Ken Loach

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September 06, 2008

Ken Loach

Ken Loach (1936-  )

(Please note this is a relaunch of an old page although there are some additions. The relaunch was due to an inadvertant mistake in constructing the original page that I couldn't get out of the code. This meant search engines were not searching for the term Ken Loach, which wasn't very useful. You live and learn:-( )



RETURN TO BRITISH DIRECTORS HUB PAGE


Films of Ken Loach Cover


Introduction 


Along with many other British director entries this entry is 'work in progress' nevertheless it will provide a basic signposting to other available resources on the web in the first instance until I'm able to make a fuller evaluation and provide fuller articles on the separate films.

From the perspective of examining and analysing the trials and tribulations, successes and failures, weakness and strengths of contemporary British cinema the films of Ken Loach are important ones to think about.

Ken Loach has been a major force in British filmmaking since the 1960s. Loach comes out of a strong tradition of British social realism which almost inevitably is a broadly left-wing cinema which also has crossovers with classic TV dramas. Kathy Come Home was a groundbreaking TV drama which helped to establish the charity Shelter and exposed the failures of the welfare state in providing good housing for all at the time. Loach also made early episodes of 'Z' Cars for TV and Up the Junction, in 1965. A powerful TV play. Much of this work depicted another side to Britain in the 1960s which is now remembered more nostaligically as the "Swinging Sixties". In fact there was considerable poverty and exploitation of working class tenants at the time. Work by people like Loach at the time applied pressure upon the Labour governemnt under Harold Wilson to invest more money in social policy initiatives such as housing and at the same time contributed to an increasing discourse of meritocracy within the country.    

All this work led to Loach being able to make feature films of which Kes about a working class boy in the North of England is probably his best known early work and has been ranked as the seventh most popular British film ever. The working class were rarely represented in a non patronising way within British cinema up until this time although the work of the British social realist movement had begun to change this.

Loach is still a powerful force in Brish and European cinema continuing to win prizes and gain recognition despite the fact that the content of his films is challenging and critical of many different aspects of contemporary society or challenging recieved version of historical events such as The Spanish Civil War and Britain's role in Ireland after the First World War.

Class and Representation in Contemporary Britain

At a time when class politics has been largely relegated to the margins Loach manages to interweave class issues with history, globalisation and its effects on locality by representing the everyday. The strengths of Loach's cinematic approach can be seen in his concerns to represent aspects of Britain which are often underrepresented. Although his film The Navigators  made for Channel Four focused upon the plight of a largely white British working class which was under attack from the Thatcher government that was restructuring the Railways Loach has begun to deal with complex issues of fragmented identities which have regional, gender and ethnic concerns dynamically interwoven in hybridsing patterns. 

Loach has always had a central concern in his film-making agenda which an exposure of the poor and exploited of the world in both contemporary and historical settings. Following on from the British social realist tradition of representing regionalism as well as class, films such as Ae Fond Kiss and Sweet Sixteen have taken on board the complex issues of identity in the contemporary world from a grassroots perspective. See Representing Changing Britain: Ethnicity and Hybridity.

Loach has also successfully taken on board important historical themes which often get ignored by the mainstream which tends to celebrate great historically periods such as Elizabethan times in Britain. Loach's prizewinning Land and Freedom represented some of the realities behind the Spanish Civil War which was an important prelude to the opening of the Second World War itself. more recently Loach made the prizewinning The Wind That Shakes the Barley which dealt with the  notoriously cruel  period of British and Irish history which saw  the inception of the Black and Tans  terrorising the  Irish population in a battle of independence. Atall times Loach takes a different perspective on aspects of life and history which often go unnoticed and unrepresented in mainstream media. Loach's critical perspective often makes it difficult to see his films in the multiplexes in Britain and in terms of box office takings his films often do better in continental Europe than in cinemas here. TV and DVD sales and a loyal continental following help ensure that Loach is able to the raise the money for new critical projects. Inevitably they are low budget and have little money for marketing campaigns. As such they represent the ongoing struggle if British and other national cinemas who are always under threat from the Hollywood industrial machine.

Ae Fond Kiss deals with changing concepts of ethnicity and celebrates the dynamism and natural hybridity of many people who dare to cross social and cultural boundaries in pursuit of their own happiness. Loach does an important job here for it is these people who are building the Britain of the future. This makes it a useful film to study as well.

It is difficult to classify Loach's films precisely becuase he seeks to look at the world through a different mental lens. One can look at Ae Fond Kiss and classify it as within the 'romantic' genre for example but it is rather more than that and would disappoint those who went along thinking they were going to see a standardised romance as structured within the genre conventions.

To look at the content of Loach's films, think about the way they are made - often reliant upon non-professional actors, and with an improvisatory method of engaging with the actors, and to relate their relationship to the systems of distribution and exhibition allows - indeed forces one take a critical perspective upon many different aspects of life. They are low budget films and indeed Loach prefers it like this. He and his teams have a far greater control over the content and the way they develop their own personal vision but they are not 'Art' films with a capital A because their aesthetic is easy to recognise amongst the desired working class audience. It is a pity that Loach has difficulty in reaching this audience through the cinema.  

The Wind That Shakes the Barley (2006)

(Trailer available here)

Although Ken Loach is one of Britain's most respected film makers getting to see his films in a cinema in the UK is a difficult affair even when they gain critical accolades as did The Wind that Shakes the Barley which won the Palme d'Or the top prize at Cannes 2006 which is the most prestigious film festival in the world (Oscars have more glam,cash and celebrity but Cannes is for good, challenging and interesting films).


When an acclaimed, leftist English director makes a film about nationalist Irish struggles – and wins the top prize at the Cannes festival – controversy is inevitable. The historian Stephen Howe looks behind the shouting to ask: is the film truthful? (Stephen Howe Open Democracy article.)

We know there is something deeply wrong with the British film industry as a whole when this sort of situation is happening. Here we need to consider and come up with different models of distribution and exhibition as an urgent matter of cultural policy to deal with the creatively choking (and polluting) control of the multiplexes

In this film Loach examines a broader historical theme which is something he has done previously in Land and Freedom about the Spanish Civil War. Loach has the ability to move from the micro of the quotidian looking at the trials, tribulations and frustrations of the everyday for working class people to important periods of history which are often obscured by various ideological and political issues of the present. There are few British films which take a critical look at the role of Britain in Irish history for example. 

This film is a useful one to study as a part of issues and debates in contemporary British cinema both from the perspective of its content and also the highly contradictory situation of the film not being widely celebrated within the cinema system itself.  

It's a Free World (2007)




For a more in depth article please see It's a Free World on this blog. For a discussion about the underlying socio-economic processes that Loach is representing see also entry on Globalisation on this blog.




Again this is a prize winning film gaining an important award at the prestigious Venice Film Festival of Best Screenplay, Venice Film Festival 2007 as well as Best Film, Seville Film Festival 2007

"Osella" for Paul Laverty at Venice Film Festival:
"It's a Free World" wins "Best Screenplay"

(Sept. 9th 2007) Paul Laverty won the "Osella" for the Best Screenplay for "It's a Free World" (directed by Ken Loach) at this year's Venice Film Festival. Besides the drama was awarded with a EIUC Human Rights Film Award and got a special mention a the Signis Awards.

It's A Free World Trailer






Below interview with Ken Loach conducted in Italian. (Loach's comments are being translated)



Review from Amanda Palmer of It's a Free World as part of a film review programme from Al Jazeera




Filmography 

Its a Free World 2007


The Wind That Shakes The Barley 2006


Tickets (with Abbas Kiarostami, Ermanno Olmi) 2005

Ae Fond Kiss 2003 

Sweet Sixteen; 11'09'01 - September 11 (segment) 2002

The Navigators 2001

Bread and Roses 2000

My Name is Joe 1998

Carla's Song 1996

Land and Freedom 1995

Ladybird, Ladybird 1994

Raining Stones 1993


Riff Raff 1991

Hidden Agenda 1990

Fatherland 1986

Looks and Smiles 1982

Black Jack 1979

Family Life 1971

Kes 1969

Poor Cow 1967


Webliography 

Screenonline biographical notes on Ken Loach (There are many associated links to films on this page)

Sweet Sixteen Films (Home page of Ken Loach and Rebecca O'Brien Production Company)

Observer report on It's a Free World

Socialist worker interview with Ken Loach about Its a Free World

European Films.Net Review of It's a Free World

Reuters Report on It's a Free World 

A different Reuters Report on It's a Free World

Guardian interview with Loach and Laverty at the Southbank

Independent Review of It's a Free World

Fujifilm PDF on Its a Free World. (Excellent images on this)

Loach makes union workers aware of wider issues attending screening for Unison branch 

BBC Story: Loach slams "Hollywood bias"

BBC on Cannes success of Sweet Sixteen

BBC Loach Criticises British Film Makers for Hollywood Dreams

MEDIA support in Production (Industrial context)

Timesonline: Eric Cantona and Ken Loach team up for football film

Films of Loach and Garnett, fudge e.Jumpcut

Euroscreenwriter interview with Ken Loach

Senses of Cinema Ken Loach

Observer Arts column on Cannes and Loach April 2008

Guardian:  'Come out Fighting'. 2006 on Wind That Shakes the Barley

Cineaste: The Revolution Betrayed. Interview with Loach

An Phoblacht on Wind That Shakes the Barley


Bibliography


Leigh, Jacob.(2002). The Cinema of Ken Loach: Art in the Service of the People. Wallflower Press

Ken Loach: Which Side Are You On? Ken Loach and His Films By Anthony Hayward ISBN: 9780747574125



Film Availability : The following Ken Loach films are currently available


ae_fond_kiss_cover.jpg Family Life DVD cover Hidden Agenda DVD cover its_a_free_world_dvd_cover.jpg Ken Loach Collection Vol 1 Ken Loach Collection Vol 2Kes DVD Cover Poor Cow DVD Cover Sweet Sixteen DVD cover The Navigators DVD Cover wind_that_shakes_the_barley_dvd_cover.jpg Land and Freedom DVD Cover

Carla



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January 11, 2008

Globalisation and Cinema: Hub Page

Globalisation & Representation in European Cinema: Hub Page

Sex Trafficking Routes to the UK


(From BBC Website April 2007)

Introduction


This page is a hub page which can direct you to specific films covered in this blog which have as one of their core themes the representation of the processes of globalisation and migrant labour which may be legal , 'illegal' or undocumented or varieties of slavery including sex trafficking. There will also be a range of useful external links provided. The focus films are currently mainly British ones with some exceptions. Sadly there seem to be few current European films dealing with these issues although of course they may be 'out there' but just not well distributed. The availability of these will be monitored and added to this page as and when they are released / discovered. Whatever else there are a fantastic number of stories of human endurance, stoicism, tragedy and success out there. It is time these were represented far more strongly and effectively than they are and also they should be represented with some recognition at the meta level of what has created these conditions in the first place. Links are also provided to useful pages or references about trafficking, migrant labour, Shock Therapy etc.

A Paucity of Representation 

On a Google search of a couple of terms I'm rather surprised that there is very little work on the web concerned with the representation of the processes of globalisation in particular cinemas and their outcomes at the level of narratives either fictional or more documentary style. British cinema is barely touched upon with the only recent film with any serious coverage being The Last Resort by Pawel Pawlikowski in a PDF of an academic conference held under the auspices of the Migrant and Diasporic Cinema in Contemporary Europe research group. Many other subjects which came up through the search focused on such things as the domination of global cinema by Hollywood, a process which has been happening since the end of the First World War so is hardly news. 

What this particular page is concerned about  is not the responses of Hollywood's 'other' ie the now, to my mind, inappropriately named World Cinema to this economic domination, although it is of concern. Rather I was hoping to find serious work linking the underlying processes of politcal economy and the global flows of migration into Europe and attempts to represent this process. In the conference refered to above there was a useful looking body of work developing around recent Italian cinema. Sadly I'm not familiar with most of the films mentioned and haven't seen them promoted here however I will be checking them out.  Even as late on as 1997 in a city like Vilnius in Lithuania one could see many beggars often old and with bad disabilities out on the streets in desparate straits. in the process of gaining nascent democracy the price was being paid by the weakest in society. 

Amongst others an entrepreneurial streak was established, cowboy economies ruled, various criminal gangs grew up and gang murders were frequent. A range of dodgy companies trading in cross-border deals with Russia in metals started up. These countries became entrepots for sex trafficking and migrant labour now being sucked into the burgeoning and quite deregulated economies of countries like Britain.   

Globalisation: The Neoliberalism of Thatcher & Reagan

When discussing globalisation it is obviously a huge concept to come to terms with. I'm taking globalisation to mean the development of a dominant discourse of neo-liberalism which started with the nearly simultaneous election of Thatcher and Reagan in 1979 / 1980 after the crisis of capitalism in the 1970s which saw the rate of profit sink in both countries and other leading Western economies, furthermore the 1970s was a decade of severe industrial strife as well as other political upheavals in Europe. Globalisation went on for about a decade which saw the enforced collapse of the Soviet Union through a door that was already half open. To get to this point required the breaking of the trade union movements in Britain and the USA through a process of deindustrialisation in these countries and the installing of an infrastructure which could develop an informationally based economy. At the same time the Soviet Union which was the main external pole of resistance to gloablisation came under increasing pressure. Undoubtedly the war in Afghanistan in which the current Taliban and al Quaida networks were supported by British and American special forces training helped to sap the energy of Soviet forces who were a relatively untrained conscript army at least as unwilling to be fighting as a lot of young Americans in Vietnam.  

Shock Therapy & Diaspora 

A core part of the strategy of the Anglo-American axis of power  after the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 - a symbolic and real signifier of the collapse of the Soviet Union - was the institution of the so-called 'Shock Therapy' economic regime in the former Soviet block. This prioritised an effective destruction of the economic infrastructure of these countries which were often internally linked by creating a range of tarrifs which made it impossible for the old system to function as effective economic competition for Western economies. It also opened up the system to takeovers by Western companies. 

The system of Shock Therapy also managed to wipe out the savings many people had made which were held in Roubles. The collapse of the Rouble which became almost worthless meant disaster for many older people in the ex-Soviet Union such as the Baltic States as well as people under the influence of the Soviet regime in countries such as Poland.  At the same time the welfare system which had ensured that everybody had housing, health and work largely fell apart. The newly emergent states were unable to afford anything like this.

Of course this doesn't explain other sources of cheap labour pouring into Southern Europe from Africa or into the United Sates via Mexico. Historically massive phases of economic expansion have sucked in labour from other parts of the World. Migration into Britain to build the transport infrastructure in the 19th century largely came from Ireland, the railways system in the USA was based upon Chinese labourers. Post-war European expansion was fuelled with labour from different parts of the world depending upon the imperial past: Britain from the West Indies, India and Pakistan; France from Algeria and various African colonies; Germany had its Gastarbeiter system using labour from Turkey, Spain, Morocco and the then Yugoslavia. 

Map of Globalisation Worlds Wealth Distribution


On this basis one can either argue that the growth of capitalism as an economic system is a form of globalisation which is a direct response to the collapse of empire as a result of the 20th century 30 Years War 1914 - 1945 or as I have done here take it as the outcomes of a specific moment in which the years of 1979 / 80 were a key political turning point which allowed the establishing of a truly globalising economy with a series of outcomes one of which is mass diasporas into the more advanced economies.   

Representing Globalisation the Strength of British Independent Cinema

In general the repesentation of the multi-faceted aspects of globalisation have been weak however it is argued here that British cinema has been possibly the best national cinema in representing the underlying political economy of globalisation as defined above.  Some of the work of Ken Loach has been concerned with the de-regulation of British industry and the dodgy outcomes of economic liberalisation from the early 1990s until now. Riff-Raff, The Navigators and It's a Free World have certainly covered many of these issues as they have unfurled underpinned by the director's understanding of political economy. Ae fond Kiss also saw Loach take on board the issue of ethnicity and identity very directly. Independent British cinema has certainly been strong on both the concerns of migration and diaspora and also on the issues of hybridity and the changing cultural identity of Britain in recent years. Arguably it could have been stronger but that is an issue well beyond the desires of individual filmmakers who have done an excellent job in the face of an industry which provides little in the way of marketing and promotion, distribution and exhibition. 

I consider that the issue of representing ethnicity in British cinema frequently relates to the period of  pre-globalisation in films such as East is East. The waves of immigration into the UK predated globalisation on my working definition and representation and ethnicity can often relate to several generations of British people and the hybridity stemming from that embeddedness. The representation of ethnicities from temporary migration and recent migration as a direct outcome of globalisation are treated differently although there are clearly crossovers and overlapping as in the case of the representation of those who are British but become caught up in post 9-11 resistance to globalisation as represented in films like The Road to Guantanamo

Other contemporary British films which deal with the issues of Globalisation currently include:

Dirty Pretty Things: Stephen Frears

Ghosts: Nick Broomfield

The Road To Guantanamo: Michael Winterbottom

In this World: Michael Winterbottom

It's a Free World : Ken Loach

11-09-01; Collected shorts including Ken Loach. A series of responses to 9/11 

Yes: Sally Potter

Last Resort: Pawel Pawlikowski 

For an overview about these films and their contribution to contemporay British cinema please go to Representing the World Locally

Non-British Films Representing the Forces of Globalisation  

Lily 4-Ever: Lucas Moodysson (Sweden, the economic Shock Therapy regime helps promote Sex trafficking to better off Western Economies) 

Cache: Michael Haneke (France) (An allegorical tale of French repressed memory of the murdurous treatment of Algerians in the 1960s) 

Code Unknown: Michael Haneke (France) (The breakdown of communications in the contemporary world) 

Lamerica (1994) Gianni Amelio (Italy).  (Albanian immigration into Italy following the collapse of communism generally). 

Babel ( 2006) Alejandro González Iñárritu (Japan/ Mexico / USA).  Another powerful allegory of miscommunication and such things as arms dealing. At Cannes 2006 many lauded the film as the first great film about globalisation.)



Webliography 


Globalisation: definitions

New crackdown on sex trafficking

Sex slavery widespread in England

Shock Therapy and its Consequences in Transition Economies (Requires institutional access)

Migration and Its Enemies: Robin Cohen  

The European Union and Migrant Labour

Mervyn King as reported by the Daily Telegraph on the way wages have been kept down by immigrant labour.

From a different political pespective The Worker outlines its case on Migrant Workers and their exploitation 

The UK signs a European Convention on trafficking. Will regulation finally catch up with the situation?

Migrant Labour the Unheard Story from Open Democracy



December 30, 2007

The Wind That shakes the Barley

The Wind That Shakes the Barley. 2006. dir Ken Loach

(Palm d'Or Winner, Cannes Film Festival 2006)

Currently there has been no time to give the film a proper review however interested visitors can follow the links below. From the perspective of  contemproary British cinema winning the Palme d'Or at Cannes is highly prestigious and very unusual for a low budget left-wing fim maker. 



The top 20 UK films grossed £151 million at the box office in 2006 with Casino Royale, The Da Vinci Code, Flushed Away, The Queen, Stormbreaker, Children of Men, The History Boys and The Wind that Shakes the Barley the most popular. The latter proved to be Ken Loach’s most successful film to date whilst also picking up the prestigious Palme d’Or at the Cannes film festival. (My emphasis, cited in Screen South film Report for 2006)




Webliography 

Sweet Sixteen: The Wind That Shakes the Barley  . This site is part of the Ken loach production team and provides a wealth of information about the film and is a good first port of call

BBC Ken Loach interview (Trailer also viewable) 

BBC news report on Ken Loach winning the Palm d'Or at Cannes

Guardian review of Wind That Shakes the Barley

Open Democracy site. Historian Stephen Howe cast an analytical eye upon The Wind That Shakes the Barley

Daily Telegraph Review of The Wind That Shakes the Barley

Wikipedia on the original song "The Wind That Shakes the Barley" inspiring the film.

Wikipedia on the Ken Loach film The Wind That Shakes the Barley




Film Availability :      Wind That Shakes the Barley DVD Cover




RETURN TO BRITISH DIRECTORS HUB PAGE 



It's A Free World,2007: Dir: Ken Loach


It's a Free World. 2007. Dir Ken Loach

(See also the Kinoeye Reference Section: Globalisation

Introduction

This entry is currently going to be limited to being a webliography rather than a full critique and analysis. It is part of an ongoing analysis of contemporary British cinema and its responses to the processes of globalisation and diaspora which are a major feature of contemporary networked society. As such it is cross linked to this entry: Contemporary British Cinema: Representing the World Locally

It's a Free World (2007)

From the persepctive of the successes of British cinema and the importance of their film makers this is a prize winning film gaining an important award at the prestigious Venice Film Festival of Best Screenplay, Venice Film Festival 2007 as well as Best Film, Seville Film Festival 2007. Yet again the British cinematic system prefers to recognise profits rather then prophets so this did not appear in a multiplex near you despite the accolades.

The film has a title which is steeped in irony for what it is seeking to do is to represent at the level of the individuals who play their part how these parts link up to the wider scheme of things. The fact that Angie and her mate Rose don't have any form of secure work to go to as a matter of providing for everyday existence means they need to become entrepreneurial. when you have nothing behind you in terms of financial or cultural capital (a combination of education and contacts to work with) then people become attracted to  the 'cowboy', 'shadow', 'underground' or 'black' economy. Angie and Rose establish a recruitment agency for migrant workers, who come to Britain because conditions have become so bad for them in their original countries of residence. combined with the entrepreneurs who are a bit further up the scale actually providing the underpaid and deperate conditions in which the migrants get recruited into form the other link in the equation. The migrants form an essential part of what Marx called the 'reserve army of labour' and what Loach is doing here is introducing audiences to this palpable aspect of globalisation.  

Success abroad and straight to DVD in the UK

As is frequently the case this British film received accolades at a prestigious film festival however because of the distribution and exhibition in the UK being so weighted against more independent films this film was distributed differently.  

"Osella" for Paul Laverty at Venice Film Festival:
"It's a Free World" wins "Best Screenplay"

(Sept. 9th 2007) Paul Laverty won the "Osella" for the Best Screenplay for "It's a Free World" (directed by Ken Loach) at this year's Venice Film Festival. Besides the drama was awarded with a EIUC Human Rights Film Award and got a special mention a the Signis Awards.

Trailer in Italian available here

Review from Amanda Palmer of It's a Free World as part of a film review programme from Al Jazeera

Production Credits

Director: Ken Loach

Producer: Rebecca O'Brien

Screenplay by: Paul Laverty

Music by: George Fenton

Cinematography by: Nigel Willoughby

Editor: Jonathan Morris

Production Design: Fergus Clegg


Cast 

Angie: Kierston Wareing

Rose:  Juliet Ellis

Karol:  Leslaw Zurek

Geoff (Angie's father) : Colin Caughlin

Jamie: Joe Siffleet

Webliography for It's a Free World

The Sweet Sixteen Website It's a Free World This website is a core resource for anybody interested in or studying the cinema of Ken Loach. Not only does it provide details of the film but in depth production note, external links and extracts of interviews form the actors are included. 

Observer report on It's a Free World

Socialist worker interview with Ken Loach about Its a Free World

European Films.Net Review of It's a Free World

Reuters Report on It's a Free World 

A different Reuters Report on It's a Free World

Guardian interview with Loach and Laverty at the Southbank

Independent Review of It's a Free World

Fujifilm PDF on Its a Free World. (Excellent images on this)

Loach makes union workers aware of wider issues attending screening for Unison branch 

Webliography for Migrant Labour conditions in Britain 

May 08/2008: "Gangmaster Stripped of License". The BBC reports on real life exploitation of Polish workers. Loach is not exaggerating!! 

New evidence of 'bonded labour'

BBC Video on migrant labour conditions:

RETURN TO BRITISH DIRECTORS HUB PAGE 


December 25, 2007

Contemporary British Cinema: Representing The World Locally

Contemporary British Cinema: Representing the World Locally

Preface:

If you have arrived here from the Chronology of European Cinema page the reason is that the film you are interested can be understood as part of the theme above.  You will find  a link below which will take you to a specialist page. See also Globalisation and Cinema Hub Page

Introduction: The Misrepresentations of Global Cinema

As an important media form Cinema as a whole functions through systems of representing the world . How it represents the world and what it represents are extremly important in terms of influencing opinion. The whole global economy is currently in a phase which Manuel Castells has described as a 'Networked society' others call it 'information society' and the 'information economy'. Whilst some consider that the Capitalist system underpinnng this phase is 'Late' Capitalism this comment is more speculative and / or polemical than proven. What is the case is that liberal, largely uncontrolled and deregulated, free market capitalism as an economic system has never been so powerful as it is in its current phase. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc of Eastern and Central Europe from 1989 onwards has been a central part of this process. The economic regime institued by the Thatcher / Reagan coupling was called "Shock Therapy" in which vast numbers of citizens in the former Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc lost their savings and their jobs. The old style communict China becoming increasingly isolated it has been  changing its  internal model  of the economy and the  political management of this to accomodate capitalism. As a result it now plays a hugely important role in world markets as it has taken over the mantle of 'workshop of the world', a mantle that was a British one for much of the 19th century. 

The human cost of this process has been and is horrendous but much of this process has been largely unrepresented in the popular media. where it has been represented the outcomes of these vast global changes has been represented as a threat from the desperate victims  who have been placed in camps in France whilst trying to gain access to the UK by both legal and illegal means.

The reality which many especially those in the middle and controlling elites choose to ignore is that large cities operate largely on the basis of this informal economy of undocumented labour who through this process lose many of thier human rights. It is a process which has been going on longer in the United States and the theorist Mike Davis in his book City of Quartz out in the early 1990s reported on whole shanty cities full of undocumented workers from Latin America as satellite cities of Los Angeles. Naturally Hollywood cinema has not seen fit to represent these social and cultural issues at a serious level.


Contemporary British Cinema: Representions of the Oppressed 


British cinema, even in Britain itself, is on the margins of the dominant systems of representation (see The Irresistable Rise of the Multiplex) in recent years it has developed a proud tradition of representing the underdog and ensuring that at least a few people gain a different understanding to the process of real life away from the pathetic populist celebrity glamour that dominates so many media forms. 

As can be seen from the list of films below the themes of diaspora and migration and a range of different perspectives upon these processes give us a chance to gain a better understanding of the world.  Of the various subthemes which this important response led by British cinema has neglected perhaps the organised criminality associated with sexual exploitation and the sex trade is the most important. It is dealt with partially in Last Resort and Dirty Pretty Things but the film which most powerfully represent this deeply nasty trade is Lilya 4-ever. Finally the British government is in the process of creating legislation to clamp down on this social evil:


Do we think it's right in the 21st Century that women should be in a sex trade or do we think it's exploitation and should be banned (Harriet Harman in BBC report)

This is of course controversial but should not be cosidered as creating a prurient regime rather as removing a mechanism of exploitation in society. Despite the outrage - mainly from men - in the BBC comments box, sexual commodification deeply degrades and denases humanity. Most of those who are victims of it are forced in by economic circumstance, other pressures or through a childhood of sexual abuse. As such the sex trade reinforces and reflects the unequal relationships of economic and gender power within society.


British Cinema and Diaspora

The list of recent British films which have diaspora and migration as a strong underlying theme include:



Diaspora Cinema 

Conference on the Industrial Context of Diaspora and Migrant Cinema


Film Availability : in_this_world_dvd_cover.jpg   last_resort_dvd_cover.jpg dirty_pretty_things_dvd_cover.jpg Ghosts DVD Cover    It


 



October 19, 2007

Chronology of Important European Films

A Chronology of Important European Films  1918 - 2003


Introduction 

This page is work in progress. Many links have been made to in site or external reviews or places where the film can be purchased; films post 2003 are now being  added. Gradually in site 'hubs' are being developed for specific national directors so that clicking on an entry will allow the visitor to access the hub where links to more specialist information on the directors will become available. This is currently a long process and will take many months. The development plan for this aspect of the site work is to open up director based pages which will provide links to the currently best available relevant web sites based upon a Google search  of normally up to page 20.

Objective 

The primary purpose of this entry is to allow visitors to start to make comparisons across national boundaries by gaining a more synoptic view of cinematic developments in parallel countries. This accords with the main cinematic purpose of the blog which is to contribute towards an understanding of European film history in the five major industrial countries of Europe since the end of the First World War.


Many directors worked in a number of countries and, as in any other cultural industry, there are plenty of crossovers becuase cultural workers such as directors and cinematographers are often chosen for specific skills or want to work in a different country to gain a more cosmopolitan experience. Visconti, for example started working with Renoir in France before the Second World War, Emeric Pressburger worked in Berlin before choosing to escape Nazism and coming to Britain. Cavalcanti worked in France and then Britain was brought up in Switzerland and was of Brazilian origin. Truffaut worked with Rossellini briefly. This is of course the tip of the iceberg and signifies the importance of cross-cultural influences within the growth of European cinema. A tradition that carries on to this day.   


Uses For This Page 

This page should help a wide range of people who have an individual, academic or film programming interest in European cinema. First of all, my apologies to visitors who are disappointed because their country is not included in the list. I have chosen to focus on the five major industrial countries of Europe as my main area of research and development. All five are currently members of G8 the World's largest GDPs. Compared to the United States all these countries struggle to get a thriving independent film which has a large audience in its own country. This basic fact about issues of the cultural representation of a range of cultures is an important aspect of what can be termed cultural citizenship.

The definition of cultural citizenship is one which argues that people from different places are able to represent themselves to the rest of world. Out of the Western European countries studied here only France has managed to maintain a very powerful indigenous film culture largely because of its film policies which necessarily extend into the sphere of exhibition and distribution.

To develop more work on more European countries is beyond the scope of an individual blogger. This huge absence points the way to thinking about how to develop a much more powerful pan-European film culture which takes on board the need to develop audiences as well as exhibition, distribution and production systems. For those interested in current institutional initiatives please link here to the European Film Institutions page

Hopefully this blog and page will contribute to this greater idea. For any interested visitors the page should contribute to gaining an overview of European cinema as it has developed since World War I. This date has been chosen as it was a turning point in World history marking the transition of global power from European Empires to the United States although of course it took many decades to complete the transfer.  

The page should help those running film clubs and societies who are trying to work out their programming, it should also help students and those independently interested in European cinema to quickly develop ideas and themes which can then be followed up. 


Underwritten Films and Directors 


One reason for doing this undertaking was to discover which films / directors were underwritten on the web. Whilst most searches will turn up highly specialist articles in small academic journals which require users to be members of a subscribing university there are sometimes very few well informed and well written in depth articles about certain films and / or directors. As I gradually make my trawl  I will note here where there seem to be weak spots in web coverage. This might stimulate interest in the films and ensure that they still remain available.

Taviani Brothers: For most of the films I have been searching so far there is relatively little quality in depth material to recommend. They have made a lot of powerful films in Italy and deserve more serious web recognition. 

Francesco Rosi: This is another director who remains underwritten on the web. Again he has made a lot of important films about Italy frequently with a strong humanitarian / political edge. 

Luchino Visconti: Regarding his 1976 film L'Innocente there is little of any use on a Google search at present. The link I have goes to a Google sample of Henry Bacon's book - this is highly recommnded by the way. The English entries via Google on Senso are generally weak despite the importance of the film as recognised by Nowell-Smith and Dyer.

Rene Clair: Le Silence est d’or there is very little available in English on a Google search.

Guiseppe de Santis: One important point to note is the fact that Bitter Rice has not been available in the UK for a considerable period of time. This is surprising to say the least because not only is it seen as an important film in the canon of Italian neorealism but it was also one of the most commercially successful of the neorealist canon. 




The Chronology


Year

France

Germany

Italy

Soviet Union / Russia

United Kigndom

1918

Dulac: Le Bonheur des autres

Gance: Ecce homo

Gance: J’accuse

L’Herbier: Phantasmes


(Weimar Cinema  until the coming of Sound: An Overview)







1919

Dulac: La Cigarette

Dulac: La fete espagnole

Lang: The Spiders

Lang: The Plague in Florence

Lubitsch: Madame Dubarry

Wiene: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari







1920

Dulac: La Belle dame sans merci

Dulac: Malencontre

Gance (-1922) La Roue

Wegener: The Golem







1921

Dulac: La Morte du soleil

Lang: Destiny

Murnau: Nosferatu







1922

Dulac: Werther (Unfinished)

L’Herbier; Don Juan et Faust

Lang: Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler







1923

Clair: Paris qui dort

Dulac: Gossette

Dulac: La Souriante Mme Beudet

Gance: Au secours

Lang: The Nibelungen







1924

Dulac: La Diable dans la ville

Renoir: La fille de l’eau

Leni: Waxworks

Murnau: The Last Laugh




Eisenstein: Strike

Protazanov: Aelita



1925

Clair: Le Fantome de Moulin Rouge

Dulac: Ame d’artiste

Dulac: La Folie des vaillants

Gance (-1927): Napoleon vu par Abel Gance

Gance(-1927) Autor de Napoleon

Gance (-1928) Marine

Lang: Metropolis

Wiene: The Hands of Orlac



Eisenstein: Battleship Potemkin

Kuleshov: The Death Ray



1926

Clair: Le Voyage imaginaire

Dulac: Antoinette Sabrier

Gance (-1928) Danses


Fank: The Holy Mountain

Murnau: Faust

Murnau: Tartuffe



Kuleshov: By the Law

Pudovkin: The Mother

Vertov: A Sixth of the World

Hitchcock: The Lodger

1927

Arrival of sound In USA

Dulac: Le Cinema au service de l’histoire (Compilation)

Dulac: Invitation au voyage

(Online screening available) 

Renoir: Charleston

May: Asphalt

Ruttman: Berlin Symphony of a City


Eisenstein: October

Pudovkin: The end of St. Petersburg

Shub: The End of the Romanov Dynasty

Shub: The Great Road


1928

Dulac: Germination d’un haricot

Dulac: Le Coquille et le Clergyman

(See under Invitation etc for online screening) 

Dulac: La Princesses Mandane

Gance: Cristallisation

L’Herbier: L’Argent

L’Herbier: Un Chapeau de paille d’Italie

Renpoir: Marquetta

Renoir: La petite marchande d’allumettes


Lang: Der Spione

Pabst: Pandora’s Box



Pudovkin: Storm Over Asia

Shub: The Russia of Nicholas II and Lev Tolstoy



1929


Bunuel: Un Chien d'Andalou & L'Age d'or

Dulac: Etude cinegraphique sur une Aaabesgue

Dulac: Disque 927

Dulac: Themes et variations

Renoir: Tire-au-flanc

Renoir: Le bled

Pabst: Diary of a Lost Girl

Siodmak et al: People on Sunday



Dovzhenko: Arsenal

Eisenstein: Old and New or The General Line

Kovinstev and Trauberg: The New Babylon

Protazanov: Ranks and People

Turin: Turksib

Vertov: Man With a Movie Camera

Asquith: A Cottage on Dartmoor

Hitchcock: The Manxman (His last silent film) 

Hitchcock: Blackmail

1930

Cocteau: Le sang d’unpoete

Gance: La Fin du Monde

Gance: Autour de La Fin du Monde

Vigo: A Propos de Nice

Von Sternberg: Blue Angel



Dovzhenko: Earth



1931

Clair: Sous les toits de Paris

Clair: Le Million

L’Herbier: Le Parfum de la dame en noir

Pagnol: Marius (Technically directed by Korda)

Renoir : On purge bebe

Renoir: La chienne

Vigo: Taris

Lang: M

Pabst: The Threepenny Opera

Sagan: Girls in Uniform



Vertov: Enthusiasm



1932

Clair: Le Quatorze juillet

Gance: Mater dolorosa

Pagnol: Fanny (Technically directed by Allegret)

Renoir : La nuit du carrefour

Renoir: Boudu sauve des eaux

Dudow: Kuhle Wampe

Lang: Das Testament das Dr. Mabuse

Riefensthal: The Blue Light



Eisenstein: Que Viva Mexico!



1933

Pagnol: Le Gendre de Monsieur Poirier

Pagnol: Jofroi

Renoir: Chotard et cie

Vigo: Zero de Conduite

(Nazi Film Genres)



Ophuls: Liebelei

Steinhoff: Hitler youth Quex

Zeisler: Viktor and Viktoria




Kuleshov: Velikii uteshitel' (The Great Consoler)

Korda: The Private Life of Henry VIII

1934

Gance: Poliche

Gance (-1935) Napoleon Bonaparte

L’Herbier : Le Scandale

Pagnol: L’Article 330

Pagnol: Angele

Renoir: Madame Bovary

Renoir: Toni

Vigo: L'Atalante

Trencker: The Prodigal Son (1933-34)


Wegener: A Man Must go to Germany



Vasiliev Bros: Chapayev

Hitchcock: The Man who Knew Too Much

1935

Gance: Le Roman d’un jeune homme pauvre

Gance: Jerome Perreaux, heroes de barricades

Gance: Lucrece Borgia

Pagnol: Merlusse

Pagnol: Cigalon

Renoir: Le crime de Monsieur Lange

Renoir: Toni

Riefenstahl: Triumph of the Will

Blasetti: Old Guard

Dovzhenko: Aerograd

Kosintsev and Trauberg: The Youth of Max

Cavalcanti: Coalface

Hitchcock: The Thirty-Nine Steps

1936

Carne: Jenny

Gance: Un Grand amour de Beethoven

Renoir: Partie  de Campagne





Dzigan: We From Kronstadt

Eisenstein: Alexander Nevsky

Hitchcock: Sabotage

1937

Carne: Drole de drames

Gance: Le Voleur de femme

Pagnol: Regain

Renoir: La Grande Illusion



Gallone: Scipio the African




1938

Carne: Hotel du Nord

Carne: quai des brumes

Gance: Louise

Pagnol: La Femme du boulanger

Renoir: La Marseillaise.

Renoir: La bete humaine.

Froelich: Heimat

Reifenstahl: Olympia

Alessandrini: Luciano Serra Pilota



Asquith: Pygmalion

Hitchcock: The Lady Vanishes

Saville: South Riding

1939

Carne: Le Jour se leve

Gance: Le Paradis perdu

L’Herbier: La Brigade sauvage

L’Herbier: Entente cordiale

Renoir: La regle du jeu








For contextual links  and more films see: British Cinema and Society: Chronology 1939–1951


British Cinema of the Second World War


Hitchcock: Jamaica Inn


Korda: The Four Feathers

Reed: The Stars Look Down

Woods: They Drive by Night

1940


(French Cinema in the Second World War

Gance (-41): La Venus aveugle

Pagnol: La Fille du puisatier

Harlan: Jew Suss

Hippler: The Wandering Jew
(on arrival go to p 147) 


Mauder & Sessner :The Attack on Fort Eben-Ebel





Hitchcock: Rebecca

1941

L’Herbier: Histoire de rire

Liebeneiner: I Accuse

Ruhman: Quax the Crash Pilot





Powell and Pressburger: The 49th Parallel

1942

Carne: Les visiteurs du soir

Becker: Dernier atout

Gance (-1943): Le Capitaine Fracasse

L’Herbier: La Comedie du bonheur

L’Herbier: La Nuits fantastique



De Sica: The Children are Watching Us

Rossellini: L’uomo dalla Croce

Visconti: Ossessione

(Intro to Neorealism

(Thinkquest site "by student team on Neorealism



Cavalcanti: Went the Day Well?

Howard: First of the Few

Lean: In Which We Serve

Powell and Pressburger: One of Our Aircraft is Missing

1943

Becker: Goupi main-rouges

Bresson: Les anges du peche

Carne (-1945) Les Enfants du paradis

Clouzot: Le Corbeau

Von Baky: Munchausen

Rossellini (43-44) : Desiderio



Arliss: The Man in Grey


Powell and Pressburger: The Life & Death of Colonel Blimp


Launder & Gilliat: Millions Like Us

1944

Gance: Manolette





Eisenstein: Ivan the Terrible Part 1

Batty: The Battle for Warsaw (UK / Poland)

Asquith: Fanny by Gaslight

Clayton: Naples is a Battlefield (Documentary)

Lean: This Happy Breed

Olivier: Henry V

Powell and Pressburger ; A Canterbury Tale

Gilliat: Waterloo Road (Spiv)

Reed: The Way Ahead

1945

(French Cultural Policy After WWII

Becker: Falbalas

Bresson: Les Dames du Bois du Boulogne

Carne:Les Enfants du Paradis

Harlan: Kolberg (1943-45)

Rossellini: Roma citta aperta

Eisenstein: Ivan the TerriblePart 2

Arliss: The Wicked Lady

Boulting: Journey Together

Crabtree: They Were Sisters

Lean: Brief Encounter

Powell & Pressburger: I Know Where I’m Going

1946

Carne: Les Portes de la nuit

Cocteau: La Belle et La Bete

L’Herbier: Au petit bonhuer

Staudte: The Murderers are Among Us

De Sica: Shoeshine

Rossellini: Paisa


Crichton: Hue and Cry (Ealing Comedy)

Jennings: A Defeated People

Lean: Great Expectations

Powell & Pressburger: A Matter of Life and Death

1947

Clair: Le Silence est d’or

Lamprecht: Somewhere in Berlin

Rossellini: Germany Year Zero


Boulting Bros: Brighton Rock (Spiv)

Cavalcanti: They Made Me a Fugitive (Spiv)

Hamer: It always Rains on a Sunday (Melodrama / Social Real)

Powell and Pressburger: Black Narcissus

1948

Cocteau: L’Aigle a deux tetes

Cocteau: Les Parentes terribles

Renais: Van Gogh (Short)

Tati: Jour de fete




De Santis: Bitter Rice

De Sica: Bicycle Thieves

Visconti: La Terra Trema



Asquith: The Winslow Boy

Lean: Oliver Twist

Powell & Pressburger:The Red Shoes

Reed: Fallen Idol

1949

Becker: Rendez-vous de juillet

Melville: Les enfants terribles

Melville: Le Silence de la mer



Rossellini: Strombli: Terra di Dio



Reed: The Third Man

Cornelius: Passport to Pimlico

Hamer: Kind Hearts and Coronets

Mackendrick: Whisky Galore

1950

Carne: La Marie du port

Clair: La Beute du diable

Cocteau: Corolian (Short)

Cocteau: Orphee

Genet: Un Chant d'amour

Resnais: Gaugin (Short)

Resnais: Guernica (Short)





Antonioni: Cronaca di un amore

De Sica: Miracle in Milan

Fellini : Variety Lights

Rossellini: Franscesco guillare di Dio



Lee: The Wooden Horse

Deardon: The Blue Lamp (Social Problem Films)

Odette (Biopic / War)

1951

Bresson: Le Journal d’un cure de campagne

Cocteau: La Villa Santo-sospir

Staudte: The Subject (GDR banned FDR)

De Sica: Umberto D

Fellini: The White Sheik

Visconti: Bellissima



For contextual links and more films see: British Cinema and Society: Chronology 1951–1964


Boulting: High Treason (Anti-Communist)

Boulting: The Magic Box

Crichton: The Lavender Hill Mob

Mackendrick:The Man in a White Suit

1952

Becker: Casque d’or

Pagnol: Manon des sources

Tati: Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot



Antonioni: I vinti


Rosi:Camicie rosse (Red Shirts)


Rossellini: Europa ‘51





Asquith: The Importance of Being Earnest 

Lean: The Sound Barrier

Frend: The Cruel Sea (War)

1953

Carne: Therese Raquin

Clouzot: Wages of Fear

Gance: La 14 juillet 1953

L’Herbier: Le Pere de madamoiselle


Antonioni: La signora senza camelie

Fellini: I vitelloni


L. Anderson: O Dreamland (Social Real)

Cornelius: Genevieve

Crichton: The Titfield Thunderbolt (Comedy)

Gilbert: The Cosh Boy (first Brit X Rated Film) 


Reed: The Man Between (Anti-Communist)

1954

Becker: Touchez pas au grisbi

Carne: L’Air de Paris

Gance: La Tour du Nesle

Varda: La Pointe courte

Kautner: Ludwig II

Kautner: The Last Bridge

Fellini: La strada

Rossellini: Viaggio in Italia

Rossellini: Fear

Visconti: Senso


Hamilton: The Colditz Story (War)

Asquith: The Young Lovers

1955

Clair: Les Grands Manoeuvres

Clouzot: Les Diaboliques

Dassin: Rififi

Renais: Nuit et Brouillard (Short)


Antonioni: Le amiche

Fellini: Il bidone

De Sica: Two Women


Anderson: The Dambusters (War)

Mackendrick: The Ladykillers (Comedy)

1956

Bresson: Un Condamne a mort s’est echappe

Gance: Magirama

Resnais: Toute la memoire du monde (Short)


Fellini: Le notti di Cabiria

Risi: Poor but Beautiful

Chukrai: The 41st

Romm, Mikhail: Murder on Dante Street

Romm, Mikhail: Ordinary Facism

Gilbert: Reach for the Sky (War)

Together (1956) Lorenza Mazzetti

(Free Cinema) 

Momma don't Allow Karel Reisz  and Tony Richardson

(Free Cinema) 

1957

Clair: Porte des lilas

Malle: Lift to the Scaffold

Melville: Bob le Flambeur

Truffaut: Les Mistons (short)

Resnais: Le Mystere de l’atelier (Short)

Rivette: Le Coup du berger (Short)

Reitz & Dorries: Schicksal einer Oper . (57-58)

Antonioni: Il grido

Visconti: White Nights

Kalatozov: Cranes are Flying

Boulting: Lucky Jim

L. Anderson: Everyday Except Christmas (Free Cinema)

Lean: Bridge on the River Kwai (War)

1958

Becker: Montparnasse 19

Carne: Les Tricheurs

Chabrol: Le Beau Serge

Malle: Les Amants

Resnais: Le Chant du styrene

(Short)

Tati: Mon Oncle




Rosi: La sfida (The Challenge)

Abuladze: Someone Else’s Chidren

Gerasimov: And quiet lows the Don



1959

Bresson: Pickpocket

Cocteau: Le Testament d’ Orphee

Gance (-1960): Austerlitz

Resnais: Hiroshima mon amour

Truffaut: 400 Blows

Reitz: Baumwolle (Doc)

Rosi: I magliari (The Weavers)


Rossellini: Generale Della Rovere

Chukrai: Ballad of a Soldier

(British New Wave)

Boulting: I'm Alright Jack

Boulting: Carlton-Browne of the FO


Clayton: A Room at the Top

Greville: Beat Girl 

Hamer: School for Scoundrels

Reed: Our Man In Havana

Richardson: Look Back in Anger (Social Real)

Reisz: We are the Lambeth Boys (Free Cinema)

Thompson: Tiger Bay

1960

Becker: Le Trou

Carne: Terrain vague

Clement: Plein Soleil

Godard: A Bout de souffle

Godard: Le Petit soldat (released 1963)

Rivette: Paris nous appartient

Truffaut: Tirez sur le pianiste

Lang: The Thousand Eyes of Dr. Mabuse

Reitz: Krebsforschung I & ii. (doc short)

Antonioni: L’avventura

Fellini: La dolce vita

Visconti: Rocco and His Brothers

Tarkovsky:The Steamroller and the Violin

Dearden: The League of Gentlemen

Green: The Angry Silence


Powell: Peeping Tom (Thriller/Horror)

Reisz: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (Social Real)

Gilbert Sink the Bismark (War)



1961

Clair: Tout l’or du monde

Godard: Une Femme est une femme

Truffaut: Jules et Jim

Resnais: L’Annee derniere a Marienbad

Varda: Cleo de 5 a 7

Kluge: Rennen (Short)

Reitz: Yucatan (Short)

Antonioni: La notte

Fellini: Boccaccio ’70 (episode)

Pasolini: Accattone

Rosi: Salvatore Giuliano

Chukrai: Clear Skies

Dearden: Victim (Social Real)

Richardson: A Taste of Honey Social Real)



1962

Bresson: Le Proces de Jeanne D’arc

Godard; Vivre sa vie

Marker: La Jetee

Melville:Le Doulos

Oberhausen Manifesto: New German Cinema directors


Kluge: Leher im Wandel (62-63) (short)

Antonioni: L’eclisse

Bertolucci: La commare secca

Pasolini: Mama Roma

Taviani Bros: A Man for Burning

Visconti: The Leopard

Tarkovsky: Ivan’s Childhood

Lean: Lawrence of Arabia (War)

Schlesinger:A Kind of Loving (Social Real)

Dr. No (Spy)

Forbes: The L-Shaped Room (Social Real)

1963

Godard: Le Mepris

Franju: Judex/Nuits Rouge

L’Herbier: Hommage a Debussy

Resnais: Muriel



Fellini: 8 1/2

Taviani Bros: Outlaw of Matrimiony

Rosi:Le mani sulla città (Hands Over the City



Anderson: This Sporting Life

Brooks: Lord of the Flies

Losey: The Servant

From Russia with Love (Spy)

Schlesinger: Billy Liar (Social Real +)

Richardson: Tom Jones (Literary Adaptation)

1964

Gance: Cyrano et d’Artagnan

Godard: Bande a part

Rouch / Godard / Rohmer et al.: Paris vu par



Antonioni: il deserto rosso

Bertolucci: Before the Revolution

Pasolini: The Gospel According to St. Matthew

Rosi:Il momento della verità (The Moment of Truth

Visconti: Sandra

Kosinstev: Hamlet



Lester: A Hard Day’s Night (Swinging Sixties)

1965

Carne: Trois chambres a Manhattan

Clair: Les Fetes galantes

Gance (-1966): Marie Tudor

Godard: Alphavile

Godard: Pierrot le fou

Kluge: Yesterday Girl (65-66

Schlondorff: Der junge Torless (65-66)

Bellocchio: Fists in the Pocket

Fellini: Juliet of the Spirits

Pontecorvo: The Battle For Algiers





Boorman: Catch Us if you can (Swinging Sixties)

Furie Sidney J: Ipcress File (Spy)

Lester: The Knack (Swinging Sixties)

Polanski: Repulsion (Horror)

Ritt: The Spy Who Came in From the Cold (Spy)

Scheslinger: Darling (Swinging 60s)


Loach: Up the Junction

1966

Bresson: Au hazard Balthazar

Godard: Deux ou trois choses que je sais d’elle

Resnais: La Guerre est finie

Reitz: Mahlzeiten (Mealtimes). (66-67)

Pasolini: The Hawks and the Sparrows

Tarkovsky (released 1971) Andrei Rublev

Anderson (Michael): The Quiller Memorandum

Antonioni: Blow Up (Swinging Sixties)

Hamilton: Funeral in Berlin

Narizzano: Georgy Girl


Alfie

Polanski: Cul de Sac

Reisz: Morgan: a Suitable Case for Treatment

Zinneman: A Man For All Seasons

1967

Bresson: Mouchette

Gance: Valmy

Godard: La Chinoise

Godard: Week-End

Pagnol: Le Cure de Cucugnan

Resnais: Loin du Vietnam (Part of a collective work)

Herzog: Signs of Life

Kluge: Artists at the Top of the Big Top: Disoriented

Pasolini: Oedipus Rex

Taviani Bros: The Subversives

Rosi: C'era una volta(Once Upon a Time)

Visconti: The Outsider

Askoldov: The Commissar

Losey: Accident

Loach: Poor Cow

1968

Carne: Les Jeunes Loups

Renais: Je t’aime, je t’aime

Rohmer: Ma nuit chez Maude

Herzog: Fata Morgana (68-70)

Syberberg: Scarabea

Bertolucci: Partner

Fellini: Histoires extraordinaires (Episode)

Pasolini: Theorem

Taviani Bros: The Magic Bird

Taviani Bros: Under the Sign of Scorpio


Anderson: If

Lester: Petulia

Reed: Oliver

Richardson:Charge of the Light Brigade (Swinging Sixties)

Donner: Here We go Round the Mulberry Bush

1969

Bresson: Une Femme douce

Costa-Gravas: 'Z'


Gance (-1971): Bonaparte et la Revolution

Melville: L'armee des hombres

Fassbinder: Love is Colder Than Death

Herzog: Even Dwarfs Start Small (69-70)

Kluge: The Big Mess (69-70)

Sanders-Brahm: Angelika Urban, Verkauferin, verlobt (Doc)

Wenders (69-70): Summer in the City

Fellini: Fellini Satyricon

Pasolini: Pigsty

Pontecorvo: Qiemada

Rossellini: Acts of the Apostles

Visconti: The Damned



Hamilton : Battle of Britain

Attenborough: Oh what a Lovely War

Loach: Kes


The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie

1970

Carne: La Force et la droit


Melville: Le Circle Rouge

Rohmer: Le Genou de Claire

Fassbinder: The American Soldier

Bertolucci: The Conformist

Bertolucci: The Spider’s Strategem

Fellini: I Clowns

Pasolini: Medea

Pasolini: The Decameron

Rosi:Uomini contro

Rossellini: Socrate

Motyl: White Sun oft he Desert (Red Western)


Roeg: Performance

1971

Bresson: Quatre nuits d’un reveur




Losey: The Go-Between

1972



Fassbinder: The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant

Herzog: Aguirre: Wrath of God

Sander: Does the Pill Liberate Women? (Doc).

Syberberg: Ludwig: Requiem for a Virgin King

Wenders: The Goalkeeper’s Fear of the Penalty

Wenders: The Scarlet Letter

Antonioni: China

Fellini: Roma

Rosi: Il caso MatteiThe Mattei Affair) (


Visconti: Ludwig

Tarkovsky: Solaris

Kubrick: A Clockwork Orange

1973



Fassbinder: Fear Eats the Soul

Sander: Male Bonding

Wenders: Alice in the Cities

Bertolucci: Last Tango in Paris

Fellini: Amacord

Moretti: La sconfitta

Rosi: Lucky Luciano



Roeg: Don’t Look Now

Anderson: O Lucky Man

1974

Bresson: Lancelot du lac

Renais: Stavisky

Rivette: Celine and Julie Go Boating

Fassbinder: Fox and His Friends

Herzog: The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser

Syberberg: Karl May


Moretti: come parle,frate?

Pasolini: Arabian Nights

Taviani Bros: Alonsanfan

Visconti: Conversation Piece

Mikhalkov: At Home Among Strangers, A Stranger at Home



1975



Schlondorff & von Trotta: The Lost Honour of Katerina Blum

Wenders: False Movement

Wenders: Kings of hte Road

Antonioni: The Passenger

Pasolini: Salo

Rossellini: The Messiah

Mikhalkov: A Slave of Love

Tarkovsky: Mirror

Monty Python and the Holy Grail

1976

Carne: La Bible

Renais: Providence

Fassbinder: Chinese Roulette

Fassbinder: Satan’s Brew

Herzog: Heart of Glass

Herzog: Stroszek ((76-77)

Reitz: Stunde Null (Zero Hour)

Sanders-Brahm: Shirin’s Wedding

Syberberg: Our Hitler (76-77)

Bertolucci: 1900

Fellini: Il Casanova di Frederico Fellini


Moretti: Io sono un autarchico

Rosi: Cadaveri eccellentiIllustrious Corpses) (

Visconti: L'Innocente (The Intruder)





1977

Bresson: Le Diable probablement

Kluge: The Patriot (77-79)

Schlondorff / Fassbinder / Kluge/ Reitz et al : Germany in Autumn

Schlondorff: The Tin Drum. (1997098)

Von Trotta: The Second Awakening of Christa Klages

Wenders: The American Friend

Taviani Bros: Padre, Padrone

Mikhalkov: Unfinished Piece for a Mechanical Piano

Jarman: Jubilee

Winstanley

1978



Fassbinder: The Marriage of Maria Braun

Herzog: Nosferatu

Fellini: Prova d’orchestra

Moretti: Ecce Bombo

Olmi : Tree of Wooden Clogs

Mikhakov: Five Evenings

Harvey: Eagle’s Wing

Parker: Midnight Express

1979



Schlondorff: The Tin Drum

Schlondorff / Kluge / Aust von Eschwege : The Candidate. (79-80)

Von Trotta: Sisters or the Balance of Happiness

Bertolucci: La luna

Fellini. Prova d'orchestra

Rosi: Cristo si è fermato a EboliChrist Stopped at Eboli) (

Taviani Bros: The Meadow

Konchalovsky: Sibiriade

Menshov: Moscow Does not Believe in Tears

Mikhalkov: Several Days in the Life of I.I. Oblamov

Tarkovsky: Stalker

Monty Python’s Life of Brian

1980

Renais: Mon oncle d’Amerique

Fassbinder: Lilli Marleen

Herzog: Woyzeck

Reitz: Heimat (80-84)

Sander: The subjective Factor (80-81)

Sanders-Brahm: Germany Pale Mother

Antonioni: Il mistero di oberwald

Fellini: City of Women



Roeg: Bad Timing

1981



Fassbinder: Lola

Fassbinder: Veronika Voss

Syberberg: Parsifal (81-82)

Von Trotta: The German Sisters

Bertolucci: Tragedy of a Ridiculous Man

Moretti: Sogni d'oro


Rosi: Tre fratelliThree Brothers) (


Taviani Bros: Night of the Shooting Stars

Mikhalkov: Kinsfolk

Reisz: The French Lieutenant’s Woman

Hudson: Chariots of Fire

(Start of Heritage Cinema?

Gregory’s Girl

1982



Fassbinder: Querelle

Schlondorff / Kluge / Engstfeld: War and Peace (82-83)

Von Trotta: Friends and Husbands

Wenders: The State of Things

Antonioni: Identificazione di una donna



Anderson (Lindsay): Britannia Hospital 


Greenaway: The Draughtsman’s Contract

1983

Bresson: L’Argent

Renais: La Vie est un roman

Herzog: Fitzcarraldo

Reitz & Kluge: Biermann -Film (short).

Schlondorff: Swann in Love

Von Trotta: Rosa Luxemburg


Moretti: Bianca

Mikhalkov: A Private Conversation

Tarkovsky: Nostalgia

Gilbert: Educating Rita

Leigh: Meantime

MacKenzie: The Honorary Consul

Local Hero

Potter: The Goldiggers

Eyre: The Ploughman’s Lunch

1984

Renais: L’amour a mort

Reitz: Heimat Part 1

Syberberg: die Nacht (84-85)

Rosi: Carmen


Taviani Bros: Chaos



Joffe: The Killing Fields

1985

Varda: Sans toi ni loi

Lanzmann: Shoah

Kluge: The Blind Director

Sanders-Brahm: Old Love (Doc)

Schlondorff: Death of a Salesman


Moretti:La messa e finita



Bernard: Letter to Brehznev

Frears: My Beautiful Laundrette

Lean: A Passage to India

1986

Barri: Jean de Florette

Berri: Manon des sources

Resnais: Melo

Sanders-Brahm: Laputa





Cox: Sid and Nancy


Douglas:Comrades

Ivory: Room With a View

Jordan: Mona Lisa

1987



Herzog: Cobra Verde

Kluge: Odds and Ends

Wenders: Wings of Desire

Olmi: Long Life to the Lady!

Rosi: Cronaca di una morte annumciata (Chronicle of a Death Foretold)


Taviani Bros: Good Morning Babilonia

Mikhalkov: Dark Eyes

Little Dorrit

Ivory: Maurice

Frears: Prick up Your Ears

Wish You Were Here

Robinson:Withnail & I

1988



Von Trotta: Three Sisters





Greenaway: Drowning by Numbers

Leigh: High Hopes

Sammy and Rosie Get Laid

1989



Wenders: Notebook on Clothes and Cities

Fellini: Intervista

Moretti: Palombello rossa



Greenaway: The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and Her Lover

Julien: Looking for Langston

1990



Von Trotta: Return

Fellini: La voce della luna

Moretti: La cosa

Rosi: Dimenticare Palermo (To Forget Palermo)

Taviani Bros: The Sun also Shines at Night

Mikhalkov: Autostop

Leigh: Life is Sweet

Minghella: Truly, Madly, Deeply

1991

Carax: Les amants du Pont-Neuf

Jeunet & Caro: Delicatessen

Pialat: Van Gogh

Wenders: Until the End of the World



Mikhalkov: Urga: Territory of Love

Loach: Riff Raff

1992




Reitz: Heimat Part 2


Rosi: Diario napoletano (Neapolitan Diary)



Ivory:Room With a View

Ivory: Howard’s End

Neil Jordan : The Crying Game

1993

Kassovitz: Cafe au Lait / Blended


Kieslowski:Three Colours: Blue

Kieslowski: Three Colours White (Co-pro)


Muller: The Wonderful Horrible life of Leni Riefenstahl


Von Trotta: Il Lungo Silenzio

Wenders: Far Away so Close


Taviani Bros: Fiorile

Mikhalkov: Anna 6-18

Leigh: Naked

Loach: Raining Stones

Potter: Orlando

1994

Chereau, La Reine Margot


Kieslowski: Three Colours Red (Co-pro)

Von Trotta:die Frauen in der Rosenstrasse

Von Trotta: The Promise

Wenders: Arisha, the Bear and the Stone Ring


Moretti: Caro diario

Moretti: L'unico paese al mondo

Mikhalkov: Burnt By the Sun

Chada: Bhaji on the Beach

Newall: Four Weddings and a Funeral

1995

Kassovitz: La Haine

Mimouni: L’Appartement

Wenders: Lisbon Story

Antonioni ( +Wenders) : Beyond the Clouds



Boyle: Shallow Grave

Winterbottom: Butterfly Kiss

1996


Wenders: Lumiere de Berlin

Moretti: Opening day of 'Close-Up'

Rosi: La tregua (The Truce)

Taviani Bros: Chosen Affinities


Boyle: Trainspotting

Herman:Brassed Off

Lee: Sense and Sensibility

Leigh: Secrets and Lies

Minghella: The English Patient

1997

Kassovitz: Assassin (s)

Wenders:Alfama

Wenders: The End of Violence





For contextual links and more films see: British Cinema and Society: Chronology 1997–2010




Boyle: A Life Less Ordinary

Madden:Mrs. Brown

Potter: The Tango Lesson

Prasad: My Son The Fanatic

Ramsey: Kill the Day

Winterbottom: Welcome to Sarajevo

1998


Von Trotta: Mit 50 Kussen Manner Anders

Moretti: Aprile

Taviani Bros: You Laugh

Mikhalkov: The Barber of Siberia

Kapur: Elizabeth

Leigh: Career Girls

Ritchie: Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels

Sofley: Wings of a Dove

1999



Twyker: Run Lola Run

Benigni : Life is Beautiful



Jordan: The End of the Affair

Leigh: Topsy Turvey  

Michell: Notting Hill


O'Donnell: East is East

Ramsey:Ratcatcher

Rozema: Mansfield Park

2000

Chabrol:Merci pour le Chocolat.

Chereau: Intimacy

Godard: Histoire (s) du cinema

Haneke: Code Unknown(French co-pro) 


Ozon: Water Drops on Burning Rocks




Frazzi & Frazzi:The Sky is Falling




Contemporary
British Directors Hub Page


Pawlikowski: The Last Resort

2001

Denis: Trouble Every Day

Godard: Eloge de l’amour

Haneke: The Piano Teacher

Jeunet: Amelie

Ozon: 8 Women

Tavernier: Laissez-Passer

Hirschbiegel: Das Experiment


Moretti: The Son’s Room



McGuire: Bridget Jone’s Diary


Winterbottom: 24 Hour Party People

Loach: The Navigators

2002

Breillat: Sex Is Comedy

Philibert: Etre et avoir

Dilthey: Das Verlangen (The Longing)




Sokhurov: Russian Ark

Chadha: Bend it Like Beckham

Greengrass:Bloody Sunday



Hüseyin: Anita and Me

Mackenzie: Young Adam

Leigh: All or Nothing

Loach: Sweet Sixteen

Ramsey: Morven Callar

2003


Rohmer: Triple Agent

Becker: Goodbye Lenin!

Reitz: Heimat Part 3


Bellocchio: Good Morning Night



Frears : Dirty Pretty Things

Hodges: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead 

2004
Hirschbiegel:Downfall


Leigh: Vera Drake

Loach: Ae fond Kiss

Gleenan: Yasmin

Pawlikowski: My Summer of Love

Potter: Yes

2005

Haneke: Caché


Rothemund:Sophie Scholl

Weingartner:The Edukators




Dibb: Bullet Boy

Frears: The Queen

Mireilles: The      Constant Gardner

Winterbottom: A Cock and Bull Story

Wright (J): Pride and Prejudice

2006
von Donnersmarck:The Lives of Others


Arnold: Red Road

Loach: Wind That Shakes the Barley

Meadows: This is  England

Williams: London to Brighton

Winterbottom: The Road to Guantanamo

2007



Broomfield: Ghosts

Corbijn: Control

Gavron: Brick Lane

Kapur: Elizabeth the Golden Age  

Loach: It's a Free World

Winterbottom: A Mighty Heart

Winterbottom: Genova

Wright: Atonement


2008 Assayas: Summer Hours




Davies: Of Time and The City

Herman: The Boy in Striped Pajamas

Leigh: Happy-Go-Lucky

Maybury: The Edge of Love

Meadows: Somers Town






June 16, 2007

Directors for Contemporary British Cinema

British Directors in Contemporary British Cinema

Return to Contemporary British Cinema Hub

All active links lead to in house pages on the specific director. Some are still under construction and may not be currently accessible. Please try again soon.

Each page will have a specific webliography and will also have both internal and external links to a range of their films. Obviously this is a major development undertaking and there are currently 30 directors listed below with some more who need to be added. 

Apologies for any shortcomings. British contemporary cinema is going to be a key development area in the coming weeks as many visitors are likely to be having an exam on it in the summer. It is recommended that you vist the relevant pages reasonably frequently as there will be quite a lot of change. Pages will be opened as soon as possible and the priority will be to provide a range of the best possible current web links which are considered as good quality.  

I hope you will find the system useful.  


Introduction

This posting is aimed at the interested general viewer in keeping up to date with British Films and film makers. It also functions as a core resource for the current OCR A2 Unit on Contemporary British Cinema.

Please note the term British Cinema is not the same as British Films. Cinema refers to the industrial systems of production, distribution, and exhibition as a whole. It can also refer to the criticics and reviewers who are employed at any given moment. Directors and the films they make here are only a small part of the industry as a whole.

The list below is primarily taken from the BFI Screenonline Directors on British and Irish Cinema.  There are a couple of inclusions of directors who don't really make films in the UK or about the UK. Sir Ridley Scott being one of these and Sir Alan Parker being another. They tend to prove the rule that Hollywood is the global centre of filmmaking which is both American and yet has an extra dimension to it which proves highly attractive to the most successful filmmakers in the world in terms of gaining audiences at least. There are some surprising omissions from the Screenonline listings such as Paul Greengrass. Here I have linked to Wikipedia in the first instance.

List of Contemporary British Directors


Arnold Andrea (1961 -).

Attenborough, Richard (Lord) (1923 - ) 

Bird, Antonia (1959 - ) 

Boyle, Danny (1956-) 

Branagh Kenneth (1960 -) 

Broomfield, Nick (1948 -) 

Chadha, Gurinder (1960 - )

Corbijn Anton

Dibb Saul (?) 

Daldry, Stephen (1961 - )

Davies, Terence (1945 - )

Figgis Mike (1948 -)

Forsyth, Bill (1946 -) 

Frears, Stephen (1941 -) 

Gavron, Sarah (    ) 

Gilliam, Terry (1940 - ) 

Greenaway, Peter (1942 -)

Greengrass, Paul (1955 - )

Hodges, Mike (1932 - )

Herman, Mark (1954-)

Joffe Roland (1945 - ) 

Jordan, Neill (1950 -) 

Julien, Isaac (1960 - )

Kapur, Shekah (  )

Leigh, Mike (1943 - )

Loach, Ken (1936 - ) 

Madden, John (1949- )

Meadows, Shane (1973 -) 

Minghella, Anthony (1954-2008)

Parker, Alan (Sir) (1944-) 

Pawlikowski Pawel (?)

Poliakoff Stephen (1952-)

Potter, Sally (1949 -) 

Ramsay Lynne (1969 -)

Ritchie Guy (1968 - )

Scott, Ridley (Sir) (1939 -) 

Williams Paul Andrew (?) 

Winterbottom, Michael (1961 - ) 

Wright Edgar (1974 -   ) 

Wright Joe (1972- )

TO VIEW OTHER CINEMA DEVELOPMENTS IN BRITAIN AND EUROPE PLEASE GO TO THE CHRONOLGY OF EUROPEAN CINEMA HUB PAGE


Return to Contemporary British Cinema Hub


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