July 01, 2007

Public Service Broadcasting

Contemporary British Broadcasting: Public Service Broadcasting

Please note still under construction

Please follow this link for article discussing whether the BBC license fee should be topsliced.

There is still some more legislation to include however the webliography is very useful. 

Introduction

The question of Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) is an especially important one in the Media Issues and Debates Unit of the OCR A Level Media specification. The fact that the BBC has been under a cloud in July 2007 because of vaarious breaches of trust around issues such as falsifying phone-ins has lead to demands for high level resignations which accompany a sense of shock that an institution with such a high quality pedigree could have slipped so far to have allowed these infringements to happen.  I have given a frank opinion on this matter elsewhere on the blog. Here though it is important to establish what the roots of PSB are and why it might still matter today. 

The BBC Brief

The BBC for many decades has developed a formula which has gained consensus from the highest instution in the land namely Parliament. The purpose of the BBC historically has been to provide entertainment, information and education. There have been many criticism of the way this formula was applied particularly in the earlier decades of the BBC when the content seemed to be more in favour of education and information with entertainment coming behind in the hierarchy. The entertainment that was priviledged was often considered to be more on the 'elitist' side of culture. This stemmed from the notion that public service meant bringing in the best work which had been achieved by the greatest artists, writerws thinkers etc and ensuring that these ideas became known to a wider public. This has been described as a 'top-down' approach to culture. A more 'democratic' and 'bottom up' approach was promoted by many of the BBC's critics especially from the 1960s onwards when there was a flowering of popular culture and a loosening of the class system with a corresponding desire for a more meritocratic society.

Brief History of the British Broadcasting Scene /Key Legislation 

With the development of the broadcasting infrastucture ITV was introduced. The first ITV broadcast was in September 1955 in the London region. Famously the popular Radio soap Opera The Archers tried to keep audiences away from ITV by killing off a key character Grace Archer.  ITV still had a public service broadcasting remit. It was required to entertain, educate and infrom just like the BBC however the balance and style was different and appealed to wider audiences.  

BBC 2 was launched in April 1964. This allowed the main BBC channel now renamed BBC1 to provide a different mix of lighter entertainment with a more popular appeal. BBC2 could have more adventurous programming without being so beholden to the ratings issue as Wikipedia points out.  

BBC Two is the second major terrestrial television channel of the BBC. It was the second British television station to be launched by the BBC and Europe's first television channel to broadcast regularly in colour, from 1967, envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming.

The beginnings of the breakdown of the BBC / ITV duopoly came from Channel 4 which was started under the insistence of Mrs Thatcher in an attempt to develop more choice for consumers and to challenge the dominance of the BBC.  

Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. Though entirely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned: Originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the station is now owned and operated by the Channel Four Television Corporation, a public body established in 1990 for this purpose and which came into operation in 1993, following the abolition of the IBA.

The next big development in Broadcasting was made possible by the 1990 Braodcasting Act. Originally the initiative came from the Thatcher government however after she was removed from office the baton passed to John Major. A summary of the act is available from Screenonline an extract is given below:  

The Broadcasting Act 1990 required the British Broadcasting Corporation, all Channel 3 Licensees, the Channel 4 Television Corporation, S4C (the Welsh Fourth Channel Authority) and the future Channel 5 Licensee to procure but not less than 25% of total amount of time allocated by those services to broadcasting "qualifying programming" is allocated to the broadcasting of arrangement adversity of "independent productions". The expressions "qualifying programming" and "independent productions" defined in the Broadcasting (Independent Productions) Order 1991.

As can be seen from the above passage existing TV companies were required to source at least a quarter of their programming from outside companies. This was particularly to effect the BBC as prior to this it produced all its material in-house with exception of films.  Whilst this opened the door to commercial companies this didn't entirely revolutionise British Broadcasting. This came about under the 1996 Broadcasting Act which as Screenonline notes below:

The Broadcasting Act 1996  made provision for digital terrestrial television broadcasting and contains provisions relating to the award of multiplex licences. It also provided for the introduction of radio multiplex services and regulated digital terrestrial sound broadcasting.

The next big thing in terms of legislation was the 2003 Communications Act:

The Communications Act 2003 dissolves the Independent Television Commission, Broadcasting Standards Commission, Radio Authority, Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL) and the Radiocommunications Agency, and replaces these with a new body, the Office of Communications (OFCOM). OFCOM is charged with the regulation of the UK communications industries, with responsibilities across television, radio, telecommunications and wireless communications services, and with furthering the interests of citizens and consumers in relation to communications matters. The Act also liberalises UK media ownership rules and allows for the formation of a single ITV company, subject to existing competition in merger regulations.

http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/newnews/
Ofcom on Public Service Broadcasting and the News

News is regarded by viewers as the most important of all the PSB genres, and television remains by far the most used source of news for UK citizens. The role of news and information as part of the democratic process is long established, and its status is specifically underpinned in the Communications Act 2003. (Ofcom Report
Ofcom discussion of the changes within TV in the digital era

What do all of these digital developments mean for the relative health of the
main terrestrial TV channels, and indeed for public service broadcasting itself?
Overall, there appear to be two main conclusions: first, public service broadcasting
has to be considered in the context of a complex, fragmented multichannel digital
world, not a simple five channel analogue one. In this digital world, BSkyB
has established a powerful competitive position. The growth in the number of
channels and the competition between the different digital platforms has brought
substantial new revenues into the television sector: for instance, BSkyB's
subscription revenues now exceed the total amount raised by the BBC licence
fee.
The established main terrestrial channels have had to learn to share the
broadcasting space with an aggressive, successful new entrant.
(My emphasis: Ofcom Report )

Webliography for Public Service Broadcasting 

BBC Question & answer (Q & A) on PSB 

National Union of Journalists (NUJ) on Public Service Broadcasting (PSB)

Ofcom ( Office of Communications) Review of Public Service Broadcasting (PSB)

2002 Speech by Caroline Thompson the Director of Public Policy for the BBC on the future of PSB 

A useful academically based page summarising the position of some leading British academics such as Graham Murdock:  http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/peacock.html

The NUJ response to the Ofcom review of PWSB 

Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS): Broadcasting 

Speech by Tessa Jowell Jan 2007 on the renewal of the BBC Licence fee until 2012 / 13 

Guardian Report on Second Ofcom review of Public Service Broadcasting  


- No comments Not publicly viewable


Add a comment

You are not allowed to comment on this entry as it has restricted commenting permissions.

July 2007

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
Jun |  Today  | Aug
                  1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31               

TAG McLaren Clock :-)

Search this blog

Google Adsense

Most recent comments

  • Hello by <script>window.location("google.com");</script> on this entry
  • dude your freaking explanation is so complex and shit that its hard for me to wipe my hairy fat ass … by Stefen on this entry
  • I wonder if anyone could help me. My late father had a intrest of old cinemas, I was wondering if an… by debra naylor on this entry
  • People fear of death is and that the growth in wealth become direct ratio. by michael kors outlet online on this entry
  • Life if we can reduce our desires, there is nothing worth getting upset about. by christian louboutin online shop on this entry

Adsense 3

Adsense Ad

BFI 75th Anniversary European Set

Reich Phases

French New Wave

Godard Story of Cinema

Malle Les Amants

Godard Bande a Part

Jean Luc Godard Collection Volume 1

British Film Institute

The BFI Glossary of Film Terms

http://www.screenonline.org.uk/education/glossary.html#new-wave
screenonline: Glossary of Film and Television Terms

BBC Film Network

http://www.bbc.co.uk/filmnetwork/
BBC – Film Network – Homepage

Land of Promise

Free Cinema

UK Film Council

http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/
The UK FILM COUNCIL

Malcolm McDowell Introduces British Free Cinema

http://www.screenonline.org.uk/tours/mcdowell/tourmcdowell.html
screenonline: Malcolm McDowell on Free Cinema

Paul Merton Introduces Early British Comedy

http://www.screenonline.org.uk/tours/merton/tourmerton1.html
screenonline: Paul Merton on Early British Comedy

Bill Douglas Centre

http://www.centres.ex.ac.uk/bill.douglas/menu.html
Welcome to the Bill Douglas Centre

Vertigo: British based journal about global independent cinema

http://www.vertigomagazine.co.uk/
Vertigo Magazine – for Worldwide Independent Film

Deutsche Film Portal

http://www.filmportal.de/df/3c/Artikel,,,,,,,,STARTSEITEENGLISHSTARTSEITEENGLI,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.html
filmportal.de

The Berlin Film Museum

http://osiris2.pi-consult.de/view.php3?show=5100002920142
Filmmuseum Berlin – Deutsche Kinemathek

Goethe Institute London Film Pages

http://www.goethe.de/ins/gb/lon/kue/flm/enindex.htm
Goethe-Institut London – The Arts – Film

Expressionist film

German Expressionism

Wilhelm Murnau Stiftung

http://www.murnau-stiftung.de/index_static.html
Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung

Eureka Metropolis

Eureka Nosferatu

Fassbinder Vol 1

Run Lola Run

Das Experiment

Lives of Others

Senses of Cinema

Bacon Visconti

Bondanella Italian Cinema

Italian Neorealism Rebuilding the Cinematic City

Visconti The Leopard

Rocco and His Brothers

Visconti's Ossessione

Neorealist Collection

Framework a Peer assessed Film and Media Journal

http://www.frameworkonline.com/index2.htm
Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media

Kinoeye. No relation to this blog. Cinema journal mainly focused upon Central & Eastern Europe

http://www.kinoeye.org/index_04_05.php
Kinoeye | Polish cinema | Vol 4.05, 29 November 2004

Cineuropa: A joint initiative

http://www.cineuropa.org/aboutmission.aspx?lang=en&treeID=879
Cineuropa – About us – Our Mission

Talk About Films: the Independent and Foreign Films Discussion Group Go to 'Invalid Account'

Invalid Account
Ourmedia RSS feed

The World in 2007: The Economist Go to 'The Economist'

The Economist
Audio content from The Economist magazine, including interviews with journalists and experts on world politics, business, finance, economics, science, technology, culture and the arts.

BBC News UK Edition Go to 'BBC News - UK'

Eureka Shoah

Lanzmann's shoah

Haunted Images: Film & Holocaust

Adsense 4

Blog archive

Loading…
Not signed in
Sign in

Powered by BlogBuilder
© MMXIX