Human capital and sustained competitive advantage
The value of human capital can never be reiterated enough. Many academics and practitioners believe that human capital is, at the most fundamental level, a main source of sustained competitive advantage. This perspective is also shared by Peter Senge, who is a pioneer in the field of learning organizations, and aligns with Deming's System of Profound Knowledge and the EFQM Excellence Model. The belief is that humans are agents who are able to act upon the system they are a part of and influence it. However, it is substantial to mention that while humans are capable to learn, the infrastructure in which they have to function is often not simple and straightforward and is dependent on internal and external constraints. Thus, the system does not always necessarily conform to reflection and involvement. Therefore, the consensus derived from Peter Senge, Deming's System of Profound Knowledge and the EFQM Excellence Model is that albeit people are the main force driving learning and progression, all the interrelated and interconnected parts of an organization have to work together to ensure the effective running of the larger whole organization.