PDSA --> DMAIC --> 1. select priorities (define) 2. learn about the process (measure) 3. investigate sources of variation and waste (analyse) 4. test theories (improve) 5. study results (improve) 6. implement (improve) 7. standardize (control) 8. review (control)
1. select priorities: select strategic issues to address that impact the business (negative and positive) and select priorities (competition, demand, variation, improvement)
Investigate the causes of the problem - which issue has the biggest impact on the business?
Create a project charter executive team: team leader, project charter, project purpose, key players, scope, barriers ect..
Form a team who are committed to achieve common goals. Identify team rules in order to reach mutual trust and commitment.
Define SIPOC (suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers) What are the expectations?
Verify performance with data
Convert the charter into contract: clarify expectations, define responsibilities, identify barriers, agree on future review plans
Define the review process: why, what, when, who?
2. learn about the process (measure)
Flowchart the process: major activities, key people, purpose, relationship between customers and suppliers, inputs and outputs
5 S: sort, straighten, shine, standardise, sustain.
8 types of waste: defects, overproduction, waiting, non-utilised talents, transportation, inventory, motion, excessive processing --> remove waste
We need to understand customers and where we can improve.
Select key measures: current performance, impact of process change, potential problem
Define data collection (qualitative and quantitative)
Listen to the voice of the process (run charts, histogram, control chart, process capability, cycle time, lead time)
3. Investigate sources of variation and waste (analyse)
Prioritise the root causes (Pareto diagram, cause and effect diagram = fishbone (environment, people, equipment, method, materials).
collect data to verify and address root causes (Scatter diagram)
Measurement variation - monitor and improve measurement process
5R: remove, reduce, replace, reorder, redeploy
Create flow and balance the work.
4. test theories (improve)
define possible solutions, select solutions to test, plan and carry out the test. develop a plan --> what we are trying to achieve? how will we know that the change is an improvement?
5. study results (improve)
Has the data given the results predicted? Is it clear which factors provide the key contribution to the improvement? How much of the variation has been eliminated? Can we meet the goal with these results or do we need to revisit other causes?
Outcome: Adopt, adapt or abandon.
6. implement (improve)
We need to understand the impementation environment and involve and engage all stakeholders. We need to develop and communicate a plan (Gantt chart)
7. standardize (control)
Standardize successful improvements and handover to process management, process flowchart, details of people involved in the process, responsibility and authority, data collection points, guidelines, training requirements, why the change is required and how to implement effectively
Mistake-proofing: prevent and detect
Visual management: easy to see, share information, control process operation, signal abnormalities, comply with standard operating procedures.
8. Review (control)
review conclusions and lessons learned
define generic learning fan-out
define future plans
benefits realized, what knowledge can be transferred to others, begin again with selecting new priorities.
I hope I concluded the essential points. We should do this all in practice.