May 23, 2011

End of KBAM what a torture of joy but is all this stuff necessary??

That it is the last MBE module is over and what a module it was. Do not even had time to upload my reflective thoughts regularly and this is why the come all at once.

Regarding the PMA I should let you know that I have chosen the resource utilisation. Being really keen on getting knowledge about Lean and its Just-in-Time (JIT) I decided for this approach. I cannot say if it was a good choice or not, it was interesting and challenging, without question.

I have never thought that an individual asset management could have this comprehensiveness. I have read about things I would never have thought about before. Anyway this also made things not easier. Being totally convinced that JIT is the right approach for the case study WaveRider (WR), actually really justifying the approach has became even harder. That has brought me to my first thought, that our first feeling is not always the best one, but it is hard to change it and accept that you are wrong.

But was I? Finally I read several books and journals so that at the end it again made sense to apply JIT to WR. And finally I was just waiting for this enlightenment, I got the conclusion that it depends on the situation and how the outer circumstances are designed. I had some at the first sight not very important assumptions which finally made the difference, like the new strategy to enter the European market. And then it is about the people in your company, the vision you have set, etc.

From one second to the other KBAM offered me the insight how all the modules we had fit together. Also the PMAs. From every PMA I could take something to draw the big picture of WR and it was great to see how the jigsaw puzzle could be put together. Never thought about that my decision during the Leadership PMA could have influence on another one. Might be very valuable to keep in mind that every decision especially strategic ones can affect a lot of other departments and can have a tremendous impact and therefore must be chosen carefully, as learned in RDM.

But KBAM also brought one issue home, the necessity to focus better one the task and area. And this was actually the hardest task of KBAM. I never felt that unsecure with what I am doing because no matter where I started reading I read something I could somehow integrate in my PMA and it would be worth. So where to draw the borders? How to limit oneself. As mentioned earlier I put a lot of effort on justifying why I have chosen JIT. IT was not task of the assignment but how could I write about something I have not even justified properly. The problem then was that the resource utilisation is a highly-competitive area. So there were so many pros and cons. So I got feedforward FF indicating that I have put too much emphasis on the justification. And again I agree it was not task, but I do not see the sense to apply something I am not totally convinced of and when I research in this area of course I would like to include it in the PMA, this is why I left this section nearly the same.

Nonetheless also further research stayed exciting, whereas it was great to see that JIT is not just an optimisation of a process, it is a philosophy and the whole culture and structure must align with the idea of JIT. It is more, adopting something from another world and there are essential concerns whether the businesses are really ready to get on this challenge. So far I see it quite critical that the people adopt the mind-set necessary to apply JIT especially in Europe. There is still too much competition out there. Too many egoists who do not care about others. That are the people implementing Lean and JIT and then finally fire people because they made their own workplace redundant.

So one thing always coming up studying this course is the essential environment of TRUST and COOPERATION. It seems like without that nothing really works out. But even if everyone agrees there is no overall solution to overcome these barriers. It does not matter in the context of KBAM if it is about JIT or KM, TRUST COOPERATION are the key words. And I speaking for myself must say, indeed what else, but it seems to be everything else but not common to trust other people. But why cannot we trust each other?And where does it start. Is it that we do not expect other people to behave adequately and thus they do not or is it just the nature of human being and we mistrust people. Interesting in this context is really to think about oneself and how and to which extend we trust others. I tried to trust others especially in the IMC leaving my stuff just where it is, laptop mobile etc. nothing happened. I was fascinated but finally someone has stolen or maybe just borrowed something I stored in my pigeonhole. It was an adapter nothing big, but one of my friends is missing a folder he had in his pigeon hole. Shall I now stop trusting people in IMC or in general?? I mean the IMC is actually an institution with a lot of well educated people and when I canot even trust them can I trust others?? Actually it does not really matter, I will keep try to trust people J.

Apart from connecting the modules we had, KBAM did more. Having studied several Asset Managements methods in –module while writing that also they are closely connected. Just worked a few hours probably more than the suggested 40h on JIT and noticed that Maintenance for example plays a significant role, because a breakdown of one machine could mean the disturbance of the whole process. So production and maintenance have to work closely together in order to guarantee a smooth working of the machine while the maintenance is not disturbing the production. On the other hand security. KM requires a certain level of security and this must be discussed with the person in charge, especially if it is about very confidential data, like the ones of customers.

Still confusing is the “distinction “ between knowledge data information. The academia is fighting and cannot, as so often, agree for one decision. So where to ake the difference? Where does knowledge management ends and information management starts, is there even a real difference. Besides it is like the hen and the egg. What was first? Comes the information first and knowledge arises out of that or is it knowledge which creates information or data which then can be used!? And is it really necessary to pay so much attention to make a distinction here? I personally have not figured it out yet…

EFQM model my new love during MBE has once more present its advantages. Going though it makes you really think of everything. So far it could be used for everything, Knowledge resource utilisation, Leadership, etc. so the question arises if there is something more required than EFQM. Leading me to my closing words.

Having gone though all these modules and worked intensively on sustainability and Leadership in the context of my dissertation, I start asking myself if we really need all this. All these books, advises, academics making simple things totally complicated, why not switcihnig on the brain and demonstrate respect to the environment as it should be as human being… 

April 24, 2011

The RDM PMA and occurring thoughts

The last lines and words about Decision-making and I made the decision to write my thoughts all at once, while having made bullet points when I was writing the PMA.

At the beginning I must say I was not really convinced by this module but finally I must say I took a lot out of it and it was worth putting a lot of effort in it. Following I will list all my thoughts I had especially during the PMA:

First I was wondering what may happen if you have made a decision, it might be a very robust one, having used several tools and techniques to avoid bias and groupthink, but after a while you find out that it was the wrong decision or not the best one. What is the next step. Should you stick to your decision even if it is not the optimum, should you change immediately? Of course once more it depends on the situation the decision itself and finally how wrong you decided, but I guess it is a never-ending story. When the mistake points out I guess it is the best to just go again through a decision-making process, analyse the current situation under consideration that the previous decision was wrong and based on the new findings come up with an even better solution.

Something what pointed out, especially during the module Management of Change (MoC) is that time and resources play a significant role in the robustness of your decision. Of course we want to decide for the best solution possible, which is according to several authors the rational decision-making, but there is the term called “bounded rationality”, which hampers us to do so. Responsible are as already mentioned time and resources. In MoC both were scarce and thus could be seen in the decisions, which were made. The simulation let several people running on the edge of their capabilities and therefore several decisions were made which had a very dramatic impact. There was no time at all to sit down and think about the decision, draw decision trees or make a nice Plus-Minus-Interesting table. I had the role as Sales Manager and thus had to decide within seconds, whereat the decision were not as robust as we learned it in RDM. Of course this simulation was an extreme, but showed again the importance of bethinking and breath through and think seriously about the decision. That should be done even if the stress and pressure is enormous. At the end some seconds, minutes or hours, maybe days can decide about death or life.

Another scenario occurred, during writing the PMA, which is also related to time pressure. Being not 100% sure about the question I wanted to ask the tutor something about it but he was not available in his office, so that I dropped him an email. In this case I was lucky enough and in a record-breaking time, I was just getting a new coffee, I got my response. So far so good for me in this situation, but afterwards I was wondering of how to handle this without the luck. Just thinking about making a decision, but to make it a proper one you just need a last validation. Now it is possible that it is uncertain when you will get your answer. Shall you just stop working on that problem or should you carry on to the best of knowledge. This becomes more interesting if you are again under time pressure and you actually made up your plan you want to follow. I know I repeat myself here, but it depends on the problem and impact of the decision. However it might be worth to carry out a risk analysis to figure out on which level of risk you are running.

During my research for the PMA I came across the statement that making good decisions is learnable. But is it?? The same question arises with regard to leadership, where I for myself did not get an answer yet, while showing a tendency to yes it can be learned, not within a few weeks but it can be developed over years. But how does it look with regard to decision making?? Do we have it in us?? Having gone through about 100h decision-making, which is actually not the most, I think yes it is learnable. Sure some have more talent or a better gut feeling but with regard to all this research in this area with all its tools and techniques in my eyes there is a good opportunity to learn it. At least it can have a significant improvement on the ability to make decisions.

Having written the conclusion another question arose. To which extend a decision is robust and solid? At what point does confusion, overwhelming and redundancy starts? Some authors argue that the more tools used the more robust is the decision. But is it really smart to do that is there maybe a point where it should be stopped? These thoughts actually can really end in a vicious circle, because actually one answer could be to use one of the decision tools in order to get an answer to that question, because this is again dependent on the situation. Pareto could deliver the answer by identifying which vital few decision-supporting tools provide the biggest contribution and thus the decision can be made as efficient as possible. But this will take some time as well, because every tool needs to be evaluated to the given situation and decision which has to be made. So very fast this can end up in a huge effort. Another idea could be to have kind of a characteristic sheet, like the one provided by our tutor, so that simple questions give guidance when to use which tool. However I see this approach a bit to static and finally people are running the risk to use too many tools while just relying on this list. Another issue is a narrowed view on decision-making tools. It is hard to create a total complete list and therefore suitable tools are not considered in the portfolio during making a decision.

April 12, 2011

Tell me !!! How does the future looks like?

Here we are, getting prepared for our future. But what does the future looks like?? This questions sparked my interest while working on an essay for an application. The application is for a challenge and about the CEO of the future and it is asked who things change in 2030. Already have written something and discussed with several people I am interested in your opinion.

What makes a CEO and thus his company successful? What are the criteria for their judgement. Are there tremendous changes?? What is the biggest difference to today's CEOs?

With regard to CBE, what is teh role of Excellence in the future? Whta about the balance between the different criteria of teh EFQM model. Will they stay the same or shift around or maybe be extended?

What about Assets adn their management? Will tehre be changes in how to manage assets, new approaches for manufacturing or something beyond risk management? What happens with knowledge. Is there something what needs specifically be considered by the CEO?

Sure leadership one of the biggest task of a CEO. How is this changing. Will the trend carries on in the direction of empowerment or do we find out something else was better? What are the most important request  of a leader? will there be differences to effective leadership today?

Part of being CEO is to make decision, at the best robust ones. Biut what about the time available in the future to make these decisions? What is required from the CEO in the future while making decisions? Will it become vital to make faster decisions due to always increasing pace of the environment?

I think the questions are not very easy and the whole task is even trickier. Apart from having my own picture in mind I am really interested in the opinion of as much people as possible. having thought about it a CEO or someone else in the top management, combines everything we have done so far. I think being a CEO is the royal league of applying the learned theory. But this is how it looks like at the moment, what can change until 2030?

Be as creative as you want to I think 20 years is a long time and a lot of changes cann happen also tremendous changes no one expected. I am really looking forward to your ideas.

April 09, 2011

The holistic view of Asset management

It is about knowledge and the knowledge we can take out of the module, it is not just about the theory of KM or AM. One thing I noticed is that the gathering of knowledge is limited. Sure it should be focused on a broad view. However is it maybe sometimes better to focus on a specific area and do not try to just put everything into for example a portfolio? I just saw it in the presentation of other groups that they did not consider everything. But nonetheless one group left out the life-cycle management, which in my eyes is not the best way to manage assets. Costs still play a significant role in the business so it must be planned as exact as possible. And Life cycle cost play a significant role in doing so. But thinking more about it I am not sure which one of the aspects could have been left out. Especially with regard to the EFQM model this is not possible and also without EFQM every aspect has its right to exist. In addition most of these aspects go hand in hand. One group recommended the building of new environmentally friendly factories. Apart from initial costs also the life cycle costs should be considered and in addition it should be thought about the maintenance of these buildings. But that is not the end. Does these buildings meet the health and safety criteria and what about the facility management and its risk analysis? So it might be smarter to consider everything even if it is a bit more work. The holistic view and its interpretation at the end makes the difference in my eyes and decides about being excellence or not.

Getting more and more into all this KBAM pointed something out for me. Like all the other modules of Paul at the end it goes in the direction of EFQM. First module was about the linking of Partnership to EFQM. Also Leadership in the end resulted in the EFQM model and I am sure or I know respectively that Six Sigma, DFSS and RDM could easily be linked to the Model maybe an idea for an improvement to add a quick section in the PMA linking what has be done to the EFQM model. It is the same with KBAM, whereat KBAM is something like the supreme discipline while it is going throughout nearly every criterion. We went through the whole booklet to identify possible aspects which can be met by KM or AM. For me that showed how also the criteria are linked between each other that a Leadership aspect for example is strongly dependent on KM and so on.

All these findings underpin for me the real power of the EFQM model

April 07, 2011

The personal Knowledge management, can we improve it?

In my previous blog I talked about the own Knowledge Management and something I was thinking about today was to which extend we are using it by our own. Just reviewing this year we have gained a tremendous amount of knowledge but are we managing it in an appropriate way?? Sure we have the lecture notes as hard or soft copy but is that enough? I do not think so. Then we have written our PMA a document full of information and knowledge. One way to compromise our knowledge. Further we have our journals and e-books, at least I have. Also knowledge but is this really managed?? What is the right approach for managing our own knowledge?? Ok it is certain that our brain is a giant hard-drive so no way for any computer to compete with that one. So it is also automatically managed in our brain? I think to a certain extend it is. However is there a way to improve it?? Because sometimes, speaking for myself, I know that I know it but I cannot trigger or access it, what helps then is spark which ignites my knowledge. For example a journal or just the PMA which brings back all the thoughts and additional knowledge I have saved somewhere on my giant hard disk. I wonder if there is a way to make our own knowledge management more efficient. Is in this case maybe sharing knowledge one option? I mean when you share your knowledge with someone you are automatically thinking about it and won’t forget it so quick. So at the end this is again an indicator that cooperation is better than competition. Even if you think your knowledge is your own asset and your advantage it can be valuable to share it. Additionally you also get the chance to expand your knowledge, while discussing something with someone else.

April 06, 2011

What is this mess actually about??

Quite a long time that Knowledge Based Asset Management started, but writing 3 blogs at the same time is a bit too much, so that I just start with that after finishing Leadership.

What can I say Knowledge Based Asset Management still a mess. Even working for several hours on it so far does not draw a clear picture of this module. What is it about?? Ok I have an idea about what knowledge management means and what asset management is meaning. Where is the sense giving us such a huge task? Is the main purpose to become an expert in asset and knowledge management? So far I think that is not the reason at least with regard to the presentation on Friday. It is more like Paul said: This is a real life task just put into 2 weeks. And what I have experienced so far is that in this module it really is like Paul said everything comes together. CBE is integrated with the EFQM model, Six Sigma and DFSS can be used to support several asset management aspects and also Leadership is playing a significant role, due to the complexity of the task, whereat the knowledge gained through the Financial Analysis module can help to consider the financial aspects. The thing is that every part is just giant, no matter if we talk about environmental management or Knowledge Management so that it is impossible to become expert in 2 weeks. But the complexity is what is the challenge here. In addition I heard people saying, that hey are missing lectures, a bit more guidance and the sense behind the task. But that is exactly the point, we are going to be prepared for our future. There are no lectures, there is no one telling you what needs to be done you are standing in front of a massive mountain of information and options and now you have to come up with something what helps the company to become more efficient. No matter how. This module gives the broad picture of all the possibilities you actually have within a company where improvement can be made. So maybe it is that we are starting to set up our own knowledge management or even expand it. We are gathering data and information and transform that into knowledge. This module takes us one step further while trying to align the knowledge we have so far and bring it all together, while adding knowledge.

March 31, 2011

Putting leadership into practice

So there I am, investigated several leadership theories for hours and hours, but is it really worth to read about it?? Is it worth to know all these theories, I mean theories are good and always sound great, but the essential step is to put them into practice. What do you think how that works for you, have you noticed some changes in your leadership style because you have read about it?? I say yes it is totally worth. At the moment I am the leader of my team and I am not standing or sitting there and think: "oh what did this one theory said how should I behave?" But sometimes I am quickly reviewing what I have done. What I noticed is that I often really jump between all the different styles. Quite often I am democratic and in another moment I just step bakc and see what the group is doing, whereat at some other point I am assertive and straight forward. On the other hand I try serve the group, what i snot that easy, and coach them. Finally I try to motivate my people why telling a story in between I have read about. SO it is really interesting to see how you behave in different situations. So I think knowing about all these theories really just helps you to understand your style of leading and make you think.

BUt putting this into practice leads me to the question if there are people really following one style to perfection? Is it possible to use just one leadership style. And if yes is the theory more like an utopia, something you are aimimg for bu will never reach. Or does it depends in this case on the comprehensiveness of the theory?

Finally one last thought popped up today during our teamworksession. Is it possible to have 2 leaders which leading a group? Maybe I alreday raised teh question but it pooped up again so I just ask it again. In my eyes it is posible to have two leaders for teh same group, which complement each other. Or maybe you can have even more than two, why not as long as teh yharmonise I see no problem there.

March 24, 2011

Is there something like inefficient leadership?

Still it is about leadership and still the end is far ahead. However it is an enjoyable work. One thing I came across during my research is teh fact that it is very hard to find negative literature about something. NOt that I am keen about finding some, but sometimes it would be nice to have some support why a theory is not appropriate. But it is just mentioned in which situation it is appropriate. Compared to for example the PMA about LeanSixSigma, it was also complicated to point out the discrepancies but at least there was something. Now I am quickly mentioning transformational leadership or charismatic leadership respectively, and that there are several types of it and that the possibility is given that it turns out to become heroic leadership. Ok then there is Rob McDonald from Procter & Gamble saying we do not need heroic leaders, but being quite frankly that is not a proper evidence, is it? So the question for me arises, is there actually something like bad leadership?. Ok Paul said we have inefficient leadership, but can we put one theory down as inefficient? Would fit "inappropriate" probably better? How can I say that it is "bad" that someone becomes a heroic leader? Maybe a heroic leader can be efficient??

At the end of the day I just know this topic is awesome, and I am coming closer to the conclusion that there is the need to combine several theories, and that there is a combination which covers most of the others, it won't be perfect but I am pursuing it… :)

March 23, 2011

Is it possible to lead by just one theory?

Again it is Leadership time adn therefore an enjoyable one. However working hours about hours has led me to the thought if you can lead by just one theory? I have studied several books now and came across a lot of different approaches. Just to say that beforehand nothing goes beyond Deming, he is covering several aspects or nearly every aspect I could think of. But just nearly. Is it possible that a theory considers everything? Nothing is perfect, that is why I, Deming and a lot more are not believing in the achievement of perfection rather in continuous improvement. So I assume that Deming knew that his approach is not perfect and won't be angry if i use another approach to complement his oneor even to improve it. Therefore again the question is should we just stick to one theory, just to ensure clearness or shall we try to merge more to get the best out of it?

March 18, 2011

Presentations and the end of the in module work, general thoughts

It is done everyone presented today his decisions, what means the end of the in module week and therefore it is time for some more reflections.

Listening to all the presentations showed again how different the outcome can be, even if we have a similar basis. The question was asked why we have so many different solutions. How can they be robust, if they do not align? We already have given the answer, that this is mainly due to the different assumptions we have made up. So how does it look like in the real world?? What we always should keep in mind is that we have bias and that sounds for me like the answer for discrepancies between different solutions. But we are also making assumptions, or is everything given in the “real world”? I mean figures about costs are given and also the philosophy of the company is given. So we know if it is risk averse or not and can orient the solution towards the corresponding characteristic of the company. So how can personal bias influence the decision? With regard to the decision tree it cannot really, we have pure numbers and estimations. There is definitely bias in creating those numbers, but I want to go one step further. So you have the numbers, circumstances and aims. How could bias influence us now. Just with regard to the decision tree? What may happen is what you are doing is what we did in our decision. We decided against the decision tree. After a successful prototype in the first year we still decided for Lymington in the first instance. Just because of the assumption that we do not want to take a high risk. So we see even while using a tool which is supposed to reduce our bias there is always the possibility to sneak around and make another suggestion. But what is smarter in this particular case: Listening to the tool or pick out what you see as appropriate??

That leads me to another thought. We had to made a decision in our team regarding the presentation. To be honest I had some bias, when I was thinking, whether let one team member present her stuff or not. First as a team we decided to not do it. But she was so passionate for that topic, that we decided to give her a chance. So far not a robust decision, because the bias was given, that everyone has to present and we wanted to make her happy that she can present what she was interested in. However at the end of day, I kind of regret this decision, Iliked our presentation but this part unfortunately destroyed the flow and at the end of the day she exceed the given time about a triple. For us it was clear that it is nearly not feasible to do this tool in a few days, but she wanted to. So why have we decided for the opposite? Is it alright to make decisions with the consideration of other’s peoples feelings? I think yes the initial decision was right, to give her a small timeslot to present her idea, because it did noz have a huge impact on the whole presentation and we could have make it right afterwards if doubts come up. Unfortunately it came different and the part became so comprehensive that it was impossible to put it right. But we did not do take this possibility into consideration. So sure we can consider the people’s feeling but also should think about things which can go wrong. So this decision was not robust enough, but at the end still the risk was appropriate and hopefully did not harm too much.

During the whole module I was asking myself, whether it is generally smart to make these “robust” decisions?! The reason for this thought is my decision to come to the WMG and study MBE. To be honest I thinkdoing more research on this decision would have led me to EBM or PPM. At the end of the day this decision was gut feeling. Just in the last minute I decided for MBE, whereat one buzzword made the difference: “challenge”. So in my eyes a robust decision in at this time would have meant the choice of another module and the missing of a life changing experience. But would that has been a robust decision at all then? I think yes, because at this particular stage I did not have the needed experience I have now. So it would have been robust at this point. In this context it is good to not have a robust decision and decide it by feeling which brought a major benefit for me. May that be appropriate at one point later as well? That against all the tools used, the person in charge just follows his feeling?

Making these intuitive decisions leads me to the current happenings at the moment:

At the one hand we have the war in Libya. Today the UN decided to step in the conflict of Libya and at the moment the European jets are waiting for the go. So up to this stage heaps of decisions had to be made. Mostly strategically, but all with the bias of the individual countries. Every country expects something different and tries to benefit the most from it. Sure they are saying that they want to help the people and bring democracy, but they won’t do it without any benefit for them, and it should be born in mind that Libya is a rich on oil. Anyway I am very interested how they made all these decisions. Were there actually people using tools. Was it just a vote and everyone decide from his intuition? How comprehensive was the decision making process? Did they maybe use scenario planning? Is there time for scenario planning? But ok these decision are made and there is this ONE fundamental decision left. Attack or not? Is that a decision can be made by one person? If not later on everything will blame the others for the decision, apart from group influence will lead to bias. But if yes, the pressure is so high, can someone at this point say no? I think in some situations we are already pushed towards a decision and it is very hard to escape. When you are in a position like that can you actually say at the end I made a robust decision? And how can you actually judge robustness in the context of war and the risk for lives? I think it is important what Jeff told us today. It is important that you reach a level of satisfaction which you are comfortable with. Can you feel at any point comfortable within the context of Libya? If you decide to go for it, it means dead people if you decide to drop this undertaking, people will die as well. So again it is your ideology and belief and therefore your bias which just can decide at the end. And no tool can help in this situation, It can make so many suggestions, but it is not replacing the human ethics.

On the other hand we have Japan. I mean it is an extreme with the nuclear power plant and the earthquake, but however it is there are decision to made in every minute. The problem here is that you do not have any time to use tools etc. to make a robust decision. Everything goes so fast, you have to decide immediately. So are all these decision not robust and inappropriate? Some are some not. But what is happening we can see at the moment. There happened something with the nuclear power plant and no one has an idea what to do. The only thing they can do is trying it. Because then they are at least doing something, instead of brooding over a robust decision in some offices. It is the same with the oil spill last year in the gulf of Mexico. It was panic, no one had any idea what to do. So they made several wrong decisions. Because they were under pressure and had no time to think about it. So intuition is needed or a proper plan. Why do they not have it? You could make decisions in front, couldn’t you? Of course these decisions not always fit 100% to the given situation but give a good guideline and would make the intuitive decisions which has to be made right on spot easier and more robust? Especially for the cases these plans/decision should be mandatory. If they are, I mean obviously you have something like risk assessment etc. why are they not appropriate? Is it because they do not see the reason for making proper decision at that time? Can we make decisions right at front or shall we always wait for the situation to have everything we need. Because if we do make them in front we have to assume something, which includes uncertainty. This is why we for example in the decision of waveriders said you can always switch to Exmouth when you feeling more like running risks. But the decision making processes are different here. What I wanted to show is that certain situation do not leave the space for robust decisions.

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  • Hey man, speaking of JIT, I've got one question. As you read more than me, have you come across what… by on this entry
  • Heyy Jan, Regarding the point you make about decision making being learnable, I'd rather say improvi… by on this entry
  • Hi, Jan. Great Post. "Responsible are as already mentioned time and resources", oh, great idea. I al… by on this entry
  • Hi, Jan. Great question. We cannot control the future of the earth in 20 years, but we can control o… by on this entry
  • Ian, i couldnt agree with you more. i might be practically impossible to lead by one theory. for me … by on this entry

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