## ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

Thomas L. Saaty has developed the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is a mathematical decision making technique which was developed almost 40 years ago. It is considered to be a further development of the traditional benefit analysis. When a problem arises and there are multiple alternatives to achieve a goal and it becomes difficult to choose the most important one. AHP provides a rational multiple- criteria decision analysis technique for such complex problems. The goal, possible decision alternatives and prioritisation criteria should be known in order to apply the AHP. To come up with a final ranking of the decision alternatives, this process ranks both, the criteria and decision alternatives mathematically. Therefore, AHP considers both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decision. Due to the complex mathematical procedures, there are various software products supporting AHP, including Decisions Lens, TESS (Windows) and Expert Choice (Original).

This technique has experienced high circulation rates in all disciplines, business sectors and regions with the increasing use of IT in the past years. The first step is to develop a hierarchal representation of a problem. At the top of the hierarchy is the overall objective and the decision alternatives are at the bottom. The number of levels in the hierarchy depends on the complexity of the problem and the decision maker’s model of the problem hierarchy. There are eight stages of AHP, namely

1) drawing the problem hierarchy

2) deciding on relative importance of the objectives/ criteria using the Likert scale

3) normalising the objectives/ criteria

4) evaluating decision alternatives

5) calculating the relative score for each decision alternative

6) calculating the total score for each objective

7) calculating the total relative score for each objective and

8) final analysis

## November 28, 2011

### Insights

INSIGHTS…

This module has been an unexpected pool of discoveries for me. Initially I was rather sceptical about the framework that Paul outlined for us . However in course of time I was able to correlate the principles that Deming outlines to real life situations. I believe that I am slowly but steadily becoming more equipped to deal with such ‘on the job’ situations by applying what is taught in class. I am also most intrigued by the opinions of my various course mates. They seem to have rare insights into what it takes to make a successful learning organisation. Now that I am in the final stages of my PMA, I can successfully articulate all that I have learnt in the course of this week.

Paul always says that there are no mistakes and emphasises on improvisation in methods and innovation in techniques. While this may seem obvious and rather simplistic when we look at the complexities of a large organisation, its importance can hardly be overemphasised while solving real life problems.

Through my extensive PMA research I have understood how using Deming system of profound knowledge and EFQM excellence model as a framework, an organisation can be transformed into a learning organisation. The various group dicussions and invaluable information from Paul has empowered me to measure peoples performances. I especially enjoyed the discussions on various models of excellence particulary the EFQM one. Another one that left a great impact on me was the ISO 9000.

It is my firm resolve to strive for excellence through practical application of models in sustainable enterprises.

## October 30, 2011

### Creating Business Excellence Experience

Creating Business Excellence Experience

Today was the last day for this module. There was something very different about it. It did not feel too good leaving the group with which I had been working for weeks now but on the other hand, I could say that I had just finished, well almost finished one module and which felt good. It was almost like my very first achievement ever since I have come here.

During this module I learnt a lot, not only in terms of education but also about myself. This course not only widened my perspective and knowledge but I also feel through this module I have learnt a lot about my self and have grown as a person too. This course not only taught me about creating business excellence but also about how I should conduct myself on a professional level. Besides, this course has influenced my management beliefs and my thought process.

By the end of this module, I can say that I strongly agree with Paul when he says that " No one has weaknesses, Everyone has areas of improvement." I hope that now that I have been able to identify some of my areas of improvement I will work on them and try to make them my strengths. This whole journey towards creating excellence has been very pleasant and enjoyable and I hope that I shall take with me what I have learnt during this module and apply it in future.

### Meetings! Meetings! Meetings!

Meetings! Meetings! Meetings!

I have to be honest, when I went for my class today I had not even a slightest clue of what this "Meetings! Meetings! Meetings!" was going to be like. During this exercise all group members were assigned positions and responsibilities in an organisation( Hotel in this case). The agenda of the meeting was already decided and all the group members were supposed to look into the problems that their departments were facing, prioritise them and come up with solutions.

Even though this exercise was not really realistic, it did teach me a lot. The most interesting aspect about this meeting was that all the group members actively took part during this meeting and like very mature individuals all the group members discussed their problems one by one and contributed towards finding a solution. Besides, it was very interesting to see that no one was working towards their department only, everyone was working for the hotel. Moreover, I think this was a very good practice as all the group members had different views and it was very interesting to see problems and solutions from different perspectives.

### Thinking out of the box!

Thinking out of the box!

This module really is about creating business excellence. Today I was very inspired from what Paul had said during the class. Everyone in today's time wants to get on the top. Everyone wants promotion and fat cheques. Well ALMOST everyone!! The competition is soo high that all the organisations are fighting with each other to get the highest market share and all the managers within organisations are just waiting to become the next CEO's. But is this important? Must we always become a part of this rat race?

This has inspired me and highly motivated me to think out of the box. I believe if we think differently and if we become one of those individuals who change the future, then there will be no need for us to run behind success because the success will follow us. In my opinion, we should look for excellence within ourselves. One should continue to make himself/herself better each day to be successful in life, professional and personal. If one follows the path of excellence and thinks out of the box then nothing can stop that person from being successful. For me, Steve Jobs is the best example for what I am trying to say as he was an individual who always aimed to change the future. If you think, who knew that they would want anything like an iPad before it was launched in the market? Well honestly, I dint but when it was launched in the market, it created sensation.

So for me, being successful would be trying to improve by looking for excellence within yourself and thinking out of the box to become an individual who is capable of changing the future.

### Time Management

Time Management

There have been times when I have wished that the days would have been abit longer than they are. I have always had a tough time with managing time. Like we all know time does not wait for anyone , it is very important that we must walk with time or else we will soon realise that we are far behind and that surely is not a very good situation to be in. I do realise the importance of time but the lazy me just can't get me going at times.

Paul's session on time management was very useful. The approach that he shared to manage the time was very useful. From what I gathered and learnt during this time management session was that firstly, we all must identify our roles ( roles as a daughter, student, friend etc). Secondly, we all must select out goals. Thirdly, keeping our goals in mind we all must learn to plan ahead and schedule and lastly, we must make the schedule a part of our life and must follow it religiously. This practice should be followed each week and by the end of the week one can assess himself/herself and see how well the time was managed and then work on becoming better the coming week if any improvement is needed.

To conclude in my opinion, one must respect time to get respected in society and time lost never comes back so we all should use our time very wisely and productively. Moreover, to be a successful person in life one all should always remember that time is money.

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