All entries for Friday 25 September 2015
September 25, 2015
Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) is an term, introduced by Fielding and Lee in 1991, for software used to support research and analysis of qualitative (and sometimes quantitative) data. Before going into details about the different available software (in an upcoming blog post) here's what you need to know about CAQDAS.
Understanding the limits of the software
It is important to know what the software is capable of doing beforehand. Unrealistic expeditions can lead to disappointments.
Here’s a list of what the software can and cannot do (Source: Online Qualitative data analysis)
The software does..
- Structure work: Enables access to all parts of your project immediately,
- 'Closeness to data' interactivity: Instant access to source data files (e.g transcripts),
- Explore data: Tools to search text for one word or a phrase,
- Code and Retrieve Functionality: create codes and retrieve the coded sections of text,
- Project Management and Data Organisation: Manage project and organise data,
- Search and interrogating the database: Search for relationships between codes,
- Writing tools: Memos, comments and annotations,
- Output: Reports to view a hard copy or export to another package.
The software does not..
- Do the analytical thinking for you (though it can do things that help you do that thinking),
- Do the coding for you. In general, you need to decide what can be coded in what way. Some software supports automatic coding the results of text searches, but it is still important to check what has been automatically coded. One program, Qualrus, after you have coded a passage, makes suggestions about how else you might code it. The same warning applies here. It is up to you to decide if what is suggested by the program makes sense.
- Reduce bias, improve reliability or, on its own, improve the quality of your analysis (though it does have functions that can be used to help improve the quality of analysis),
- Tell you how to analyse your data. (No-one thinks a word-processor can write a report for them.)
- Does not calculate statistics, though some programs will produce simple counts and percentages.
Next Guest, McQueen, & Namey (2012, p. 224) recommend this graph for deciding when to use qualitative software
Main talking points about CAQDAS
A clear advantage of using a CAQDAS software is the ability to work work with larger datasets. However, large datasets can lead to a focus on breadth rather than depth Seidel (1991). This means there’s a chance of losing detailed insight into the social situation being investigated.
With a COQDAS It is easier to keep track of the material and manage the data (Tesch, 1990). One advantage of using a COQDAS is allowing a trail of analysis to be preserved which makes it easier to replicate the research (Conrad and Reinharz, 1984). Another is the ability to repeat the retrievals and searches on data in a consistent way. Which in turn allows retrospective checks (Fielding and Lee, 1998).
3. Creativity and Thinking
CAQDAS software can, at least, perform technical and clerical tasks quickly and efficiently (Tesch, 1991)
4. Efficiency in Data Management
using CAQDAS saves time and is more efficient (Tesch, 1990). However, this means that organising the database still requires a researcher to be systematic (Fielding and Lee, 1998).
5. Distance from data
Weitzman and Miles (1995) identified the importance to researchers of feeling close to the data they are analysing.
Proponents of manual methods might argue that although it is easier to move around the database than shuffle paper, it is easier to flip a page than scroll down, quicker to read from a printed page than from the screen, easier to annotate in a number of different ways.
Weitzman and Miles (1995) have argued that distance from the data could be reduced with improvements in the interface design.
6. Methodological approaches
Drass (1989) noted that many programs supported thematic approaches to analysis (particularly grounded theory) but were not suitable for certain methodologies that did not use themes.
Seale (2000) agrees that CAQDAS programs were not suitable for conversation analysis and discourse analysis.
7. Speed and superficiality
Fielding and Lee (1998) cautioned, is that computers facilitate quick and dirty research with the possibility of premature closure. Seale (2001) noted that many did very little more than a simple code and retrieve which then formed the basis of a thematic report.
CAQDAS software makes teamwork easier. However, this means that everyone should have a copy of the software and that, generally speaking, only one user can alter the data at a time (which is not necessarily true of all the latest software).
CAQDAS software does not lock the analytic procedure into a rigid coding schema and iterative processes of coding and recoding are natural parts of CAQDAS use
However, this could lead to an over-reliance on the ‘coding’ method (Coffey and Atkinson, 1996)
10. Quantitative data
Ragin and Becker (1989) argued that CAQDAS software would narrow the gap between quantitative and qualitative data
Tesch (1989) pointed out, is that many quantitative researchers think CAQDAS software is just about the quantification of qualitative data (for better or for worse).
11. Support and Awareness
Fielding and Lee (1998) pointed out that computer staff providing support for the programs often have a background in natural science and therefore found it difficult to relate to the CAQDAS software.
Debates about the software, Taylor, C., Lewins, A. & Gibbs, G.R., 2005.
- Coffey, A. and Atkinson, P. (1996) Making sense of Qualitative Data, London: Sage.
- Conrad, P and Reinharz, S (1984) 'CAQDAS software and qualitative data: editors’ introductory essay',Qualitative Sociology, 7 (1/2): 3-15.
- Drass, K. A. (1989) 'Text analysis and text-analysis software: a comparison of assumptions'. in Grant Blank, James L McCartney and Edward Brent (eds), New in Technology in Sociology: Practical Applications in Research and Work. New Brunswick: NJ: Transaction Publishers.
- Fielding N.G. and Lee R.M. (1998) Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research, London SAGE.
- Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied Thematic Analysis. Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA.
- Ragin, C.C. and Becker, H.S. (1989) 'How the microcomputer is changing our analytic habits', In: G. Blank et al. (eds), New Technology in Sociology: Practical Applications in Research and Work. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
- Seale, C (2000) Using CAQDAS software to Analyse Qualitative Data, In: David Silverman (ed) Doing Qualitative Research – A Practical Handbook. London: SAGE
- Seidel (1991) 'Method and Madness in the Application of Computer Technology to Qualitative Data Analysis'. In Nigel G. Fielding and Raymond M. Lee (eds), Using Computers in Qualitative Research, London: Sage.
- Tesch, R. (1990) Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. London and Philadelphia: Falmer Press.
- Tesch, R. (1991) 'Software for qualitative researchers analysis needs and program capabilities', In Nigel G. Fielding and Raymond M. Lee (eds), Using Compluters in Qualitative Research, London: Sage.
- Weitzman, E.A., & Miles, M.B. (1995). Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis: A Software Source Book. Thousand Oaks: Sage