March 14, 2007

The Measures of Welsh Poetry: Part 4: The Awdl

Whitesands ~ Traethmawr

D. Awdlau
This is a series of four parts that covers:
Cynghanedd ;
• the Englyn ;
• the Cywydd ;
• and the Awdl .
Once again these measures use cynghanedd in addition to the other formal restrictions. Often these measures are units for making up longer poems.

1. Rhupunt Hir (Long Rhupunt)
Lines: 1
Syllable Count per line: 12
Rhyme Pattern: 4 syllables then b internal rhyme, 4 syllables then b internal rhyme, 4 syllables then a main rhyme.
Note: If the b rhyme ends an unstressed syllable, then it must form a double rhyme (e.g. cysgu (to sleep) and dysgu (to learn)). If the b rhyme ends with a stressed syllable, then the first 4 syllables must make a cynghanedd, the second 4 syllables must make a cynghanedd and the third 4 syllables must make a “cynghanedd groes”: http://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/zoebrigley/entry/the_measures_of/ .

2. Rhupunt Byr (Short Rhupunt)
Lines: 2
Syllable count per line: 8
Rhyme Pattern: 4 syllables then b internal rhyme, 4 syllables then a main rhyme b. 4 syllables then b internal rhyme, 4 syllables then main rhyme a.

3. Cyhydedd Fer (Short Cyhydedd)
Lines: 2
Syllable count per line: 8
Rhyme Pattern: a, a (Last syllable of the line can be stressed or unstressed)
Note: This form appears in the Gododdin and in the Book of Taliesin.

4. Cyhedded Naw Ban (Nine Branch/Arm Cyhydedd)
Lines: 4
Syllable count per line: 9
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, a, a

5. Cyhedded Hir (Long Cyhededd)
Lines: 2
Syllable count per line: 10, 9
Rhyme Pattern: 5 syllables then b internal rhyme, 5 syllables then a main rhyme b. 5 syllables then b internal rhyme, 4 syllables then main rhyme a.
Note: In line 1, both the first 5 and the second 5 syllables make a cynghanedd. In line 2, the two parts of the sentence make one cynghanedd.

6. Toddaid
Lines: 2
Syllable count per line: 10, 9
Rhyme Pattern: (a) b (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), (b) a (the internal rhyme b comes in the middle of the line).
Note: The form can be modified by adding extra versions of the first couplet between the first couplet still keeping the second couplet for the end.

7. Hir a Thoddaid (Long Cyhededd plus a Toddaid)
Lines: 4
Syllable count per line: 10, 10, 10, 10
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, (a) b (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), a.
Note: The form can be modified by adding extra versions of the first couplet between the first couplet still keeping the second couplet for the end.

8. Byr a Thoddaid (Short Cyhydedd plus a Toddaid)
Lines: 6
Syllable count per line: 10, 6, 8, 8, 10, 6
Rhyme Pattern: (a) + no end rhyme (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), a, a, a, (a) + no end rhyme (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), a.
Note: The non-rhyming final syllables of lines 1 and 5, must make cynghanedd with the first words of the following sentence.

9. Clogyrnach (Short Cyhydedd plus a Short Toddaid)
Lines: 4 (sometimes 5)
Syllable count per line: 8, 8, 10 (sometimes split into 5+5), 6
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, (b) + b (the internal rhyme b comes on the fifth syllable), (b) +a (the internal rhyme b comes in the middle of the line).

10. Cyrch a chwta (Direct and Internally Rhymed)
Lines: 4 (sometimes 5)
Syllable count per line: 8, 8, 10 (sometimes split into 5+5), 6
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, (b) + b (the internal rhyme b comes on the fifth syllable), (b) +a (the internal rhyme b comes in the middle of the line).

11. Gwawdodyn (name possibly from the name of the tribe that inspired the Gododdin?)
Lines: 4
Syllable count per line: 9, 9, 10 (sometimes split into 5+5), 6
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, (a) + b (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), (b) +a (the internal rhyme b comes in the middle of the line).

12. Gwawdodyn Hir (the Long Gwawdodyn)
Lines: 6
Syllable count per line: 9, 9, 9, 9, 10 (sometimes split into 5+5), 9
Rhyme Pattern: a, a, a, a, (a) + b (the internal rhyme a can come on the seventh, eighth or ninth syllable), (b) +a (the internal rhyme b comes in the middle of the line).


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