February 26, 2017

White Collar crime sources

Please could you all research a case of white collar crime from the Old Bailey or the newspapers and consider whether you think the defendants were treated more leniently than other types of thefts?

Also look at the following pieces:

Anne Hurle: Blessing and Oliver B

Greenwood: Aleemat and Oliver R-J

Egan: Mikka, Yetunde and Izzy

Exchequer Bills Forgery: Louisa, James and Aksana

Liverpool Mercury: Amie and Zoe

Bram Stoker: Abi and Charlotte


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  1. Zoe Zbrzezniak

    ‘Commercial Morality’, Liverpool Mercury, 1869
    • Says how they’d received a pamphlet called ‘stealing no theft and killing no murder’
    • About how bad the world is and suggested remedies: buying up of railways by Gov as a means to get rid of speculation (nationalisation), suppression of bubble companies, reforming of trade by putting end to department system in large warehouses, repeal of the Bank Act and boycotting The Times
    • Newspaper says there is something terrible in these proposals
    • All about wherever the commercial morality is better or worse then
    • Don’t think the trials of big bankers for example show that the world is worse
    • There has never been a period in history where wealth can be accumulated pretty freely
    • Talks about other periods of national gambling, other fraud cases
    • Says that the haste of the rich has been the grand failing of humanity for thousands of years
    • The only reason we think its worse is because the transactions are taking place at a larger scale and operations of speculation are more complicated and now we have the press to publicise it all
    • ‘the difference between present and former times is rather a difference of form and of degree rather than principle’
    • In former times speculations were much less extensive but still present
    • Says how from 1815ish capitalists were looking for new means of employing surplus earnings- gov wasn’t borrowing, some went abroad, then others looked to invest at home- and this is where investing in stocks and railways came from
    • Previously before 1825 railways didn’t exist and stock banks prohibited
    • Railways have absorbed 500M of capitalist savings, and have added to wealth and power of this nation
    • There probably has been many frauds committed, but we are in doubt wherever there has been more in proportion to the capital invested than there was in the making of roads initially
    • Also, people often lose money from their own miscalculations, not other people’s dishonesty
    • Says joint stock banks are more secure than previous private banks who often failed

    26 Feb 2017, 16:15

  2. Abi Wren

    Famous Imposters, VI. Arthur Orton; https://archive.org/stream/famousimposters00stokrich#page/201/mode/1up • Claimed to be the heir of the Tichborne fortune.
    • Over 100 persons drawn from every class and for the most part hoenst in their belief swore to this identity.
    • However Orton surpassed these by working out a lie in such a way to divided the country into two great parties – those who believed him and those who did not.
    • It has been estimated that the resistance of this fictitious claim cost the Tichborne estate not far short of £100,000.
    • Lady Tichborne predicted on her death bed that as long as the annual dole she requested was continued, so long should the house of Tichborne prosper, but should it be neglected, their fortunes would fail and the family name become extinct from want of male issue.
    • She foretold that a generation of 7 sons would be immediately followed by 7 daughters.
    • Dole was discontinued in 1796, owing to the complaints of the magistrates and local gentry that the practice encouraged vagabonds/gypsies.
    • Extinction of the family name followed, as well as 7 sons and 7 daughters in generations.
    • Lady Tichborne’s son, Roger, died at Sea, upon the Bella.
    • Lady Tichborne alone, refused to give up hope – her obstinate disregard of such conclusive evidence of the fate of her son prey upon her mind to such an extent as to make her an easy victim for any scheming rascal pretending to have new so her lost son and ‘sailors’ who told of all sorts of wild stories of how some of the surveyors of the Bella has been rescued and landed in a foreign port, became constant visitors at Tichborne Park and profited handsomely from the weak-minded lady’s credulity.
    • After Sir James death, the lady became even more ready to be victimised by their specious lies.
    • Firm in her belief her son was alive, Lady Tichborne now caused advertisements to be inserted in numerous papers – in November 1865, she learnt through an agency a man answering the description of her son had been found in New South Wales.

    Arthur Orton – notorious claimant to the rich estates and title of Tichborne – originator of one of the most colossal attempts at fraud on record, and also had remarkable success in duping the public.

    28 Feb 2017, 15:49

  3. Abi Wren

    Famous Imposters, VI. Arthur Orton;

    • Arthur Orton – notorious claimant to the rich estates and title of Tichborne – originator of one of the most colossal attempts at fraud on record, and also had remarkable success in duping the public.
    • Claimed to be the heir of the Tichborne fortune.
    • Over 100 persons drawn from every class and for the most part hoenst in their belief swore to this identity.
    • However Orton surpassed these by working out a lie in such a way to divided the country into two great parties – those who believed him and those who did not.
    • It has been estimated that the resistance of this fictitious claim cost the Tichborne estate not far short of £100,000.
    • Lady Tichborne predicted on her death bed that as long as the annual dole she requested was continued, so long should the house of Tichborne prosper, but should it be neglected, their fortunes would fail and the family name become extinct from want of male issue.
    • She foretold that a generation of 7 sons would be immediately followed by 7 daughters.
    • Dole was discontinued in 1796, owing to the complaints of the magistrates and local gentry that the practice encouraged vagabonds/gypsies.
    • Extinction of the family name followed, as well as 7 sons and 7 daughters in generations.
    • Lady Tichborne’s son, Roger, died at Sea, upon the Bella.
    • Lady Tichborne alone, refused to give up hope – her obstinate disregard of such conclusive evidence of the fate of her son prey upon her mind to such an extent as to make her an easy victim for any scheming rascal pretending to have new so her lost son and ‘sailors’ who told of all sorts of wild stories of how some of the surveyors of the Bella has been rescued and landed in a foreign port, became constant visitors at Tichborne Park and profited handsomely from the weak-minded lady’s credulity.
    • After Sir James death, the lady became even more ready to be victimised by their specious lies.
    • Firm in her belief her son was alive, Lady Tichborne now caused advertisements to be inserted in numerous papers – in November 1865, she learnt through an agency a man answering the description of her son had been found in New South Wales.

    28 Feb 2017, 15:50

  4. Abi Wren

    • Any wavering doubts the lady had were swept away by an aged servant and old pensioner of the Tichborne family claiming to recognise the claimant to be Roger.
    • ^This man’s simplicity proved a valuable asset to Orton.
    • Orton – born in 1834, son of a butcher.
    • Lady Tichborne was satisfied with Orton’s claim to be Roger, despite gaping holes in his story, which she surpasses as him being confused.
    • ^ She lived under that same roof as him for weeks, accepted his wife and children, and allowed him £1000 a year.
    • It did not weigh on her that the rest of the family unanimously declared him to be a imposter, or that he failed to recognise them or recall any incident in Roger’s life.
    • Orton left no stone unturned to get together evidence in support of his identity.
    • As a result of his strenuous activity and plausibility he produced at the first trial over 100 witnesses, on oath, identified him as Roger Tichborne.
    • Only 17 witnesses arraigned against him, and in Ortons own opinion,it was his own evidence that lost him the case.
    • He would have won he said ‘if only he could have kept his mouth shut’.
    • Trial lasted 102 days.
    • Cross examination of Orton lasted 22 days.
    • Sir John Coleridge – ‘the first 16 years of his life he has absolutely forgotten, the few facts he told the hurt were already proved, or would hereafter be shown to be absolutely false or fabricated…he had forgotten his mother’s maiden name, claimant knew nothing of French’.
    • Where the case broke down most completely was in the matter of tattoo marks.
    • Roger had been freely tattooed.
    • On his left arm, a cross, an actor, and a heart.
    • Orton too, it was found out had also been tattooed on hit left arm with his initials A,O, and though neither remained there was a mark which was sworn to be the obliteration of those letters.
    • Jury declared they required to hear nothing further, upon which the claimants counsel elected to be nonsuited.
    • These tactics did not save their client, for he was at once arrested on the judges warrant, on the charge of wilful and corrupt perjury and committed to Newgate where he remade until bail for £10,000 was forthcoming.
    • A year later in 1873 the Claimant was arraigned before a special jury in the Court of Queens Bench – Orton now having to defend instead of attack.
    • Many of the former witnesses now forsook the claimant.
    • in 1874, on the 188th day of the trial, the jury found the defendant was not Roger Tichborne, that he was Arthur Orton.
    • Orton was sentenced to 14 years penal servitude.
    • The trial was remarkable not only for its inordinate length, but also for the extraordinary scenes by which it was characterised.
    • The verdict and sentence created enormous excitement thorough the country, for all classes more or less had subscribed to the defence fund. – Media Sensationalisation.
    • But by the time Orton was released partially all interest had died away and his effort to resuscitate it was a miserable failure.
    • Sworn confession he published din the People, he told the whole story of the fraud.
    • Orton survived his release form prison for 14 years,but gradually sinking into poverty he died in lodgings.
    • To the end he was a fraud and an imposter, for on his coffin he demanded the lying inscription ‘Sir Roger Tichborne’

    28 Feb 2017, 15:50

  5. Isabel Lock

    Old Bailey sources:

    Old Bailey source: Frederick William Sitton, aged 33, Embezzlement. Stole a half-crown and 3 shillings, 1840, London.
    • Worked as a warehouseman to Edward Bull for nearly 13 years.
    • Discovered when they counted their half-crowns and shillings as being short after they had counted the till a few days before. Searched Sitton and found a half-crown in his outside jacket pocket and three shillings in a purse in his trouser pocket.
    • The accused apparently had appeared different in character over the last three months.
    • He was charged with stealing and produced no excuses. He pulled out the purse himself i.e. handed himself over when being searched by the police.
    • Verdict: Guilty. Transported for 7 years.
    Old Bailey source: Thomas Everitt, indicted for feloniously forging and uttering a request for the delivery of 1 box of gunpowder-tea, with intent to defraud John Travers and another, 1840.
    • Everitt (aged 17) forged a fake note informing his boss, John Travers, to collect 1 box of gunpowder-tea from a ‘Mr Symonds’.
    • Mr Symonds claims in court that he did not write this paper and has no idea who the prisoner is.
    • Prisoner’s Defence: ‘A gentleman sent me in with it, and said he would be at the coffee-shop ready when I came back, and give me 6d.; he did not say what it was for. I did not say I had come from the shopman; I said from a man in the street; I never knew where Mr. Symonds lived.’
    • Verdict: Guilty of uttering. Confined Two Years.
    • In comparison to the above theft case in the same year, the sentence for this white collar crime does seem slightly more lenient, indicating that it was not viewed as harshly as other types of theft.

    01 Mar 2017, 15:03

  6. Isabel Lock

    Pierce Egan’s Account of the Trial of Mr Fauntleroy for Forgery (1824):

    • Mr Fauntleroy, man in his forties – committed forgery, little pity for him for he had ‘sinned with his eyes open’.
    • Fauntleroy was the acting partner of the banking-house called Marsh, Stracey, Fauntleroy and Graham (names of the partners).
    • The fraud was committed against the Bank of England, and £400,000 would scarcely cover the Bank of England’s losses.
    • His first forgery had been committed over 10 years before he was caught.
    • His partners all claimed they had no knowledge of Fauntleroy’s delinquencies, which he himself concurred also.
    • It was discovered when one of the joint-trustees happened to check the accounts at the Bank of England.
    • He was committed to the House of Correction, with 2 people to watch him day and night in order to prevent any attempted suicides. Reports circulated in the city that he had indeed taken his life but these were untrue rumours. He was in a state of despair but was controlled and monitored.
    • 17 merchants and bankers gave evidence at his trial.
    • Some argued for his integrity.
    • The case was argued twice in court but in both cases he was deemed guilty and sentenced to death.
    • He was anxious to avoid public observation
    • He claimed he had used the forged funds to pay the firm’s debts. He kept up the dividends but made no entries of such payments in the bank’s books.
    • Verdict: He was sentenced to be hanged on November 30th 1824 at Newgate.
    • He was one of the last few to be hanged for forgery before it ceased to be a capital offence in 1836.
    • 100,000 people attended his execution.
    • Some rumours claimed he survived by sticking a silver tube down his throat and went on to live a good life afterwards.
    • ‘…forgery is a crime of the greatest magnitude’.
    • This case got ‘universal attention’
    • He has featured as a character in many novels
    • He conducted numerous forgeries – 16,000l per annum was required to pau off the interest of his forgeries.

    01 Mar 2017, 15:04

  7. Louisa Helliker

    The History and Mystery of the Exchequer Bills Forgery Examined (1842)
    • Addressed to Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn, Chancellor to the Exchequer.
    • The letter discusses the forgery of bill, and criticises newspapers such as The Times who lept to the forger’s defences, while praising Chancellor’s ‘commendable resistance to their dictation’, since the ‘newspapers are wrong in their conclusions’. (p. 5)
    • Questions members leading the inquiry, Mr Stephens and Mr Mitford on their lack of experiences, draws analogy of sending travellers into a foreign country without a map and without knowing the language, resulting in an unsatisfactory travel account. (p. 6)
    • Expresses deep criticism at the failure to inquire into the ‘manner in which such documents were forged’, instead only examining which bills were fake or genuine, saying such oversight was a ‘deplorable’ error. (p. 8)
    • In failing to carry out a full investigation he demands that the commissioners should be investigated for ‘not having truly and fully executed their powers and trusts’. (p. 10)
    • Found tracing the circulation of bills ‘easy’, and contends this should have formed the pre-inquiry before the ‘why and the whereabout’. (p. 11)
    • Investigating business man named Solari, went bankrupt in 1822, subsequently imprisoned for seven years for debt, and yet by 1836 he was a director of many companies entering into ‘extraordinary’ transactions that should’ve raised red flags. (p. 14)
    • Contends the witnesses claims of ignorance are irreconcilable if not with ‘common honesty, then at least with common sense’. (p. 15)
    • Argues companies who have found themselves the victim of fraud had they acted with due caution as is customary they could have stopped the frauds sooner. (p. 22)
    • Adopts classifications of companies implicated to judge culpability, ranging those who were entirely complicit and negligent in their conduct to those who knew nothing of the fraud. Judges such classification to be more ‘intelligible, more conformable to the evidence’ than commissioners methodology. (p. 27) Categories as follows;
    1. Suspected and participated in fraud.
    2. ‘Unjustifiable disregard’ to markers of fraud.
    3. Dishonesty suspected, but taken advantage of.
    4. Unwarrantable lack of caution.
    5. Misplaced confidence.
    6. Unavoidable deception in honest transactions. (p. 28)
    • Commissioners failed to offer any opinion about how honest claimants would be repaid. Author argues that the government should have no part in repayment, they are no politically, morally or legally bound. (p. 28)
    • Rather it should be the Stock Exchange Company who should answer for its members, or holders of fake bills should sue companies that issued them. (p. 32)
    • Concludes by saying he hopes his findings will prompt a deeper inquiry, with the power to trace and recover property, then redistribute it to the victims. Declares himself the Chancellor’s ‘humble and obedient servant’. Signs off merely as ‘The Author’. (p. 51)

    01 Mar 2017, 20:35

  8. Louisa Helliker

    Old Bailey Cases of Forgery
    • Mr John Olive, Henry Adcock, John Chave and Robert Bogg were all held on the 7th April 1813 for having in their possession a forged bank note.
    • All were found guilty and transported for fourteen years. This is a serious punishment for possession.
    • These white collar crimes were not handled more leniently than common theft, because often white collar crimes were viewed as a betrayal against the crown and the public.
    • Meanwhile, Mr John Elmes was found on 13th September 1815 to be guilty of making, forging and counterfeiting bank notes.
    • While the ‘three witnesses gave the prisoner an excellent character’, and was recommended for mercy by the prosecutor and the jury, this made no difference and he was sentenced to death by the jury, aged 20.
    • This demonstrates the severity of white collar crimes, and although often given strong defences by respectable members of the community, this was not enough to overturn the anti-forgery moral panic that was occurring at the time. As a result, death was a common punishment for forgery.
    • This should be taken in context, as all crimes examined occurred in the early part of the century when public condemnation of forgery was at an all-time high. May find that by the century’s closing punishment was less severe.
    • For example John Dixon was convicted in 1870 of intent to defraud and was issued punishment of eighteen months imprisonment, John Bingham similarly was found guilty of forgery in the same year and was given twelve months imprisonment.
    • This shows tides may have turned by this point, as the death penalty for forgery was overturned in the 1840’s hinting towards greater legal and public leniency as time progressed.

    01 Mar 2017, 20:36

  9. James Groom

    The History and Mystery of the Exchequer Bills Forgery Examined (1842)
    • The anonymous letter discusses the forgery of bill, and criticises newspapers such as The Times who lept to the forger’s defences, while praising Chancellor’s (who the letter/article is addressed to – Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn) ‘commendable resistance to their dictation’, since the ‘newspapers are wrong in their conclusions’.
    • Criticises the members leading the inquiry (Mr Stephens and Mr Mitford) on their shortage of experiences.
    • Highly critical about the failure to inquire into the ‘manner in which such documents were forged’, instead only examining which bills were fake or genuine, saying such oversight was a ‘deplorable’ error.
    • Through carrying out his own investigation he now demands that the commissioners should be investigated for ‘not having truly and fully executed their powers and trusts’.
    •States that finding the circulation of the bills was easy and argues this should have formed the pre-inquiry before the ‘why and the whereabout’.
    • Business man named Solari → went bankrupt in 1822, subsequently imprisoned for seven years for debt, and yet by 1836 he was a director of many companies entering into ‘extraordinary’ transactions that should’ve raised red flags.
    • Argues companies who have found themselves the victim of fraud had they acted with due caution as is customary they could have stopped the frauds sooner.
    • Comes up with own procedure/methodology → Adopts classifications of companies implicated to judge culpability, ranging those who were entirely complicit and negligent in their conduct to those who knew nothing of the fraud. → Judges such classification to be more ‘intelligible, more conformable to the evidence’ than commissioners methodology.
    • Commissioners failed to offer any opinion about how honest claimants would be repaid. Author argues that the government should have no part in repayment, they are no politically, morally or legally bound.
    • Rather it should be the Stock Exchange Company who should answer for its members, or holders of fake bills should sue companies that issued them.
    • Concludes by saying he hopes his findings will prompt a deeper inquiry, with the power to trace and recover property, then redistribute it to the victims. Calls himself ‘The Author’ at the end.

    01 Mar 2017, 21:46

  10. James Groom

    OLD BAILEY
    CHARLES HENRY RAVENSCROFT, Deception > forgery, 26th June 1809.
    CHARLES HENRY RAVENSCROFT was indicted for that he on the 24th of April , feloniously did falsely make, forge, and counterfeit, and caused and procured to be made, and willingly acted and assisted in feloniously forging and counterfeiting a certain order for the payment of 15 l. with intention to defraud Richard Wilson .
    • He was found guilty for his crimes and sentenced to death
    • Despite himself stating he has always behaved like a ‘gentleman’ as well as himself stating ‘I have been ten years in the navy, and three years in the light dragoons’
    • On top of this the prisoner was recommended to his Majesty’s mercy by the jury, on account of his youth (23 years of age)
    • This shows the seriousness that forgery was handled with → the death penalty was handed out despite there being reasons that the jury felt he should be seen with mercy.
    • This is not surprising when looking at the incident in context of its time → the early part of the century was when public condemnation of forgery was at an all-time high.
    • Indeed when compared to incidents that occurred later in the century we can see a change has occurred in how the crime of forgery is dealt with → we know the death penalty for forgery was overturned in the 1840’s hinting towards greater legal and public leniency as time progressed.
    • (1886) JOHN DAVIS (54) PLEADED GUILTY * to forging and uttering receipts for 5s. and 10s., with intent to defraud, and also to obtaining various sums of money from various people by false pretences, with intent to defraud.— Fifteen Months’ Hard Labour.

    01 Mar 2017, 21:46

  11. Oliver Baldwin

    The Case of Anne Hurle, The Criminal Recorder: Or, Biographical Sketches of Notorious Public Characters

    • Anne Hurle, a 22-year-old woman was accused of forgery.
    • In the source it describes how this is proof that the female mind is full of vice even if their appearance doesn’t suggest so.
    • The majority of the trial focuses on her married life and relationships with men.
    • She was looked upon poorly as they saw her having taken advantage of an old man to commit the fraud.
    • She apparently pleaded in prison that she was pregnant and tried to fool the nurses set to examine her.
    • She was executed for her crime.
    • Anne Hurle is portrayed as deceptive and devious in the trial and her forgery is built up into something evil and not taken at face value.
    • With her being a woman her personal life is taken into account when it seems irrelevant to the crime that she has committed.
    • She eats very little in prison and clearly shows remorse for what she has done but is executed to the full extent of the law at the time.

    01 Mar 2017, 22:50

  12. Aleemat Salami

    James Greenwood, The Seven Curses of London, Chapter 9: The Thief Non-professional
    • Published in 1869
    • He’s a writer and journalist
    • “There are registered and unregistered thieves”
    • Speaks about how crime is decreasing in London but at a slow rate and even the figures that the government have are of what he calls “professional criminals”
    o He describes them as a class of people who “have abandoned all idea of living honestly, and who, weighing the probable consequences, resign themselves to a life of systematic depredation, and study existing facilities, and likely new inventions, just as the ingenious joiner or engineer does in an honest way”
    • Thinks that the “professional criminals” are worse than “thieves denounced as such, and convicted, and sent to prison”
    o “It ceases to be a wonder how constantly vacancies in the ranks of crime are filled when we reflect on the flimsy partition that screens so many seemingly honest men, and the accidental rending of which would disclose a thief long practised, and cool, and bold through impunity”
    • Considers then a community of men in all branches of the social economy and “their masters are fully aware of it” but are allowed to carry on in their jobs
    • He gives the example of the London General Omnibus Company
    o Asummes that they have a lot of them because their weekly takings range between nine to ten thousand pounds
    o “Now it is well known to the company that their conductors rob them. A gentleman of my acquaintance once submitted to the secretary of the company an ingenious invention for registering the number of passengers an omnibus carried on each journey, but the secretary was unable to entertain it. “It is of no use to us, sir,” said he. “The machine we want is one that will make our men honest, and that I am afraid is one we are not likely to meet with. They will rob us, and we can’t help ourselves.” And knowing this, the company pay the conductor four shillings a day, the said day, as a rule, consisting of seventeen hours—from eight one morning till one the next.”
    • Thinks that these “professional criminals” are everywhere and it should not startle the public to hear of these cases

    01 Mar 2017, 23:27

  13. Aksana Khan

    Compared 2 newspaper accounts on the commission set to/have examined the case of the Exchequer Bills Forgery

    1. MARKET and CITY NEWS . The Morning Post (London, England), Friday, February 11, 1842; Issue 22175. British Library Newspapers, Part II: 1800-1900. 
    a. Language is detached, judges the legal arguments provided by Mr Johnston (the lawyer defending the ’”innocent holders”’. Goes between judging the merit of his arguments and contextualising them by comparing them to other cases of forgery in order to understand who is to be held liable for the Bills e.g. asking ‘By whom were the Rapallo forgeries recognised at the Exchequer Office as good and valid bills?’ (this would test the limits of authority’s knowledge) And ‘had the defendant proceeded to show, which probably he did not, beyond all doubt, that the signature could not be his, and that he would in reality be unduly prejudiced by the payment of the alleged counterfeit , a different decision might have followed.’ denying the genuineness of signature = insufficient defence. Cites other cases tried with same defence and failing.
    b. Moral judgements:
    i. The Exchequer Bill fraud has been less prolific of pamphlets than might have been expected, considering the great importance of the principle that will be involved in the adjustment of it.’
    ii. looking into how other cases of forgry were determined, and ex
    c. This seems to be more about upset at failing to follow procedure where there wasn’t any/or not enough. Highlights that Johnston unsure about how the EB holders should be regulated. Says that the liability of the government should be forced. Johnston provides an overview of forgery cases in common law, state that the one whose name is forged is not liable but the one who forged is. Says that Lord Mansfield whose experience in mercantile law agrees with Johnston by highlighting other cases which agree with the lack of liability on those who were forged. Those who doled out the cash were to be seen as negligent, not just making mistakes

    02 Mar 2017, 08:08

  14. Aksana Khan

    2. MONEY MARKET AND CITY INTELLIGENCE . 
    The Era (London, England), Sunday, August 14, 1842; Issue 203. British Library Newspapers, Part I: 1800-1900. 
    a. As this is later on, after the commission’s proceedings, there is a distinct moral tone to this. The writer goes insofar to mock the effort the Commissioners were said to have gone to in ‘sparing no pains’ in creating a ‘luminous’ report.
    i. ‘These Commissioners were appointed under an act to inquire as to the issue, receipt, circulation, and possession of certain forged Exchequer Bills; but we think if the title of the act had been “To screen the gross negligence of the Exchequer Bill Office (the real cause of the fraud having occurred), and to protect the claims of the holders of these Bills until such time that Parliament could not do them justice,” it would have been much more appropriately denominated.’
    b. Similar to the other article because they look into how Rapallo was treated in the investigations; ’ as it was thought necessary to bring over Rapallo for the laudable purpose of casting doubts upon the character, and ruining the prospects of the unfortunate victims of his villainy, we think the Commissioners might have added one more question to their 7766, and asked him who forged the bills?’
    c. Implies that this deceit was perpetuated by many professions for so long, that it seems like the old boys network protects itself.
    i. ‘These Exchequer Bills have been negotiated and passed current since 1836; they have passed into every channel – the Bank, bankers, brokers, and every one in the habit of lending money on exchequer Bills, without reserve. The fact is, no one ever expected there could be a fraud in Exchequer Bills emanating from the Exchequer Bill Office; the public relief on the vigilance of the Government to prevent that, and, from the circumstance of the Exchequer Bills being called in twice a year, if any or parties had been defrauded of these, the party defrauded might have immediately discovered it.’
    ii. ‘The Commissioners did not feel it their duty to examine “whether the Exchequer Bills were genuine or not,”…because the former Commissioners (of blessed memory) declared that “it was in the absence of sufficient internal check on the Exchequer Bill department, and the incompleteness of general supervision,” which had caused this wrong to be inflicted on the public.’

    02 Mar 2017, 08:08

  15. Yetunde Abdou

    TRIAL OF MR FAUNTLEROY
    • Egan was a journalist, sports writer and commentator on popular culture
    • Has ‘sinned with his eyes open’; did not do the crime on impulse
    • Forgery – a crime of the greatest magnitude
    • Comforts enjoyed in prison: (Cold Bath Fields)
    o In the public imagination
    o Labelled as a ‘state room’, and can be equated to the residence of any gentleman
    o Has a view of Hampstead Hills and Highgate
    o Allowed to take visitors alone
    o But this was investigated and he was put under stricter provisions
    o Still ahs large sums of money in his possession
    o Accused of staying in Mr Vickery’s (governor) house during sentence
    o Vickery; Mr F needed a room with air because he was sick
    o Allowed to walk in the prison garden
    o Food: mutton chop; or beef steak; pint of wine (other prisoners are also allowed)
    o Only had £6 since imprisonment
    o Acc to V the privileges were lies fabricated in order to prejudice the magistrates against him (Vickery)
    o He was recommended to write to the Editor of Times (where the story was reported) and ask ‘for an unqualified contradiction of the paragraph’
    • Removal to Newgate-
    o Carpeted room, slept better there than at the other prison
    o Requested daily conversations with the chaplain
    o ‘mild and affable manners’
    o Told officers that he would never escape because he would feel too guilty to the governors/ officers
    o

    02 Mar 2017, 08:13


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  • Sir William Molesworth, 'Speech on Transportation…' What the Molesworth's speech does well in high… by Victoria Rowedder on this entry
  • Memoirs of James Hardy Vaux (1819) James Hardy Vaux was arrested for stealing a handkerchief aged 16… by Dan Ewers on this entry
  • George Barrington, 'A Voyage to New South Wales' (1796) Barrington was born in 1755, and is describe… by Helen Oakes on this entry

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